Renal cell carcinoma is a type of kidney cancer that starts in the lining of tubules in the kidney. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults. It occurs most often in men ages 50 to 70. Renal cell carcinoma, is also called hypernephroma, adenocarcinoma of renal cells, or renal or kidney cancer. It is the most common kind of kidney cancer found in adults.