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Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics

ISSN: 2161-0959

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Epidemiological Profile on Chronic Hemodialysis Patients in Semi-Urban City in Ivory Coast

    Tia Weu Mélanie*, Wognin Manzan Anastasie, Koffi Christ Ziahy Reine Marie, Kpan Kehi Jonathan, Gonan Yannick, Boda Romuald, Fofana Lancina, Konate Faman and Gnionsahe Apollinaire

    DOI: 10.37421/2161-0959.2022.12.416

    Background: Chronic kidney disease is a global public health problem in terms of prevalence, the cost of management and its mortality. Despite the high cost of hemodialysis facilities, many public units are being created to meet the ever-increasing demand of kidney disease patients in Ivory Coast. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiological profile of patients treated by chronic hemodialysis in a public unit in an Ivorian city.

    Methods: It was a retrospective study of record of chronic hemodialysis patients for at least 3 months during the period from November 2014 to December 2020.

    Results: The mean age was 41.5 years with a sex ratio of 1.5. The dialysis started as an emergency with 85.9% of patients, on a temporary catheter in 78.4%. The average duration on dialysis was 28.08 months. Mortality rate was 26.67%. Factors associated with death were a nonhigher level of education (0.01), chronic heart failure (0.001), the presence of a temporary catheter (0.05), uncontrolled blood pressure (0.0001), a severe anemia (0.0001), the absence of the use of erythropoietin (0.004), the absence of diuretic (0.02) and a less than one year duration on dialysis (0.00012).

    Conclusion: The patients treated in this dialysis unit were young. Mortality was high. We recommend the inclusion of dialysis care for chronic kidney disease patients in the universal healthcare coverage of Ivory Coast.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Renal Biopsy in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Kouamé Justin N’Dah*, Tia WM, Lagou DA, Guei MC, Abouna AD, Touré I, Oka KH, Kobenan AAR, Diopo S, Delma S, Cherif I, Amékoudi E, Ouattara BS, Yao KH, Ackoundou NC, Adonis KL, Yao GV, Gnionsahié DA and Diomandé MIJM

    DOI: 10.37421/2161-0959.2022.12.420

    Background: Renal biopsy (RB) is a significant advance in the management of kidney disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies were conducted. The objective of our work was to evaluate the indications of RB, to determine the epidemiological and histological characteristics of nephropathies diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study on RBs examined between January 2015 and December 2019, at the Pathological Anatomy and Cytology Departments of Cocody-Abidjan and Bouaké Teaching Hospitals. RBs came from four African countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Guinea-Conakry and Burkina Faso). Optical microscopy and/or direct immunofluorescence techniques were used. Included in this study were RBs containing epidemiological, clinical, biological and anatomic pathological data (optical microscopy and/or direct immunofluorescence). The parameters studied were: indication of RB, epidemiological and clinical profile, proteinuria and histology.

    Results: Over the study period, we collected 179 RBs, or 35.8 RBs/year. The mean age of patients was 32.9 13.8 years (extremes of 11 and 70 years). The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.03. Nephrotic syndrome was the main indication (64.2%, n=115) followed by persistent acute kidney disease (7.8%, n=14), rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (7.3%, n=13), nephrotic syndrome with chronic kidney disease (6.1%, n=11), isolated chronic kidney disease (5.6%, n=10) and other indications (8.9, n=16). Glomerular nephropathy (GN) was observed in 97.8% (n=175) and tubulointerstitial disease (TID) in 2.2% (n=4). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (34.6%, n=62), nephrotangiosclerosis (10.6%, n=19), extramembranous GN (10%, n=18), post-infectious GN (8.9%, n=16), lupus GN (7.3%, n=13) were the main nephropathies.

    Conclusion: The Renal biopsy is a crucial gesture for the diagnosis of nephropathy. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is the main nosology. The establishment of a kidney registry would allow a better knowledge and management of kidney pathologies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

    Bladder, Kidney, and Urologic Cancer: A Guide for Internists

    Peter Steve* and Andrew Darwin

    The kidney, ureter, and bladder cancers have different cellular ancestries and thus constitute separate clinical entities. Most frequently, tumours of the renal parenchyma are referred to as kidney cancer in general. 90% of all renal malignancies are renal cell carcinomas (RCC), which are by far the most common type of kidney cancer. Urothelial carcinoma (UC; formerly known as transitional cell carcinoma) predominates in cancers of the renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Modern Kidney Transplant Innovations

    Andrew Darwin and Peter Steve*

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    Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

    A Viewpoint on Close Monitoring in Healthcare and Nephrology

    Erica Faxon*

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      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 2

      Anti-microbial effect of Garlic (allium sativum Linn)

      Njla Yehya Elhaj Wardgo

      Introduction: Streptomycin is a first aminoglycoside synthesized as products of Streptomyces griseus and is inhibitor of protein synthesis. The resistant mutants obtained in vitro have abnormal ribosomes. In few clinical strains of staphylococcus aureus there is some evidence for plasmid locus or gene determining streptomycin resistance (ayliffe, 1970; grub band and oreilly,1971). The mechanism of resistance is uncertain. Since ancient time, naturally occurring plants have played an important role in the discovery of new therapeutic agents. Almost all antibiotics are subjected to the problem of bacterial resistance. Garlic (allium sativum Linn) has an important dietary and medicinal rule for centuries. Its typically pungent odor and bacterial activity depend on allicin, allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has variety of antimicrobial activity.

      Methods: Garlic powder was purchased from local market. The 70% of ethanol was prepared. Bacterial strain was inoculated on sterile nutrient broth and incubated at 37c for 24 h. Each culture was swabbed on the surface of sterile nutrient agar plate in duplicate. Standard streptomycin with different concentration was added.

      Result: Mean zone of inhibition was expressed and compared with the control. The findings of this study reveal the distinct antibacterial profile of Allium sativum Linn. Solely and in streptomycin synergism against streptomycin-resistant S. aureus. Staphylococcus is a gram positive aerobic and nonaerobic, immobile. It is a catalase positive, and capable of mannitol fermentation. S. aureus is very sensitive to alcoholic extract. The antimicrobial activity of garlic is depending on allicin compound, which is more effective on gram positive bacteria much more than gram negative. Allicin is very important compound that create the antibacterial properties and limit the speed of RNA synthesis. Use of garlic extract solely is fruitful. Synergistic use can prevent the pathogenic organism grow their resistance against antibiotic.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 3

      Direct detection of antibiotic resistance bacteria in patients with post-surgical nosocomial infection (carbapenem resistance gene klebsiella pneumonia /pseudomonas aeruginosa) using Molecular Techniques in Alfasher North Darfur State

      Anfal Nasreldin Bagal Serag

      Introduction: Surgical site infections coincide and contribute to healthcare associated infections, therefore the definition of surgical site infections (SSIs) referred to infections that occur in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure which were one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp., etc. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more predominant in the postoperative wound samples compared to the Gram-negative organisms.  Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli were multidrug resistant (Chaudhary et al, 2017). Surgical Site Infection has been increased over the past few years. World Health Organization (WHO) documented that 66% of establishing countries have no imprinted data related to the burden of SSI and the data based on the surgical prophylaxis is insufficient. However, good quality of the microbiology laboratory practice is important, in Sudan, while searching in literature there no researches to date on this topic of laboratory diagnosis for surgical and nosocomial infections monitoring antibiotic resistance.  In Alfasher, however, patients suffer from post-surgical infections and good quality in microbiology laboratory practice is mandatory. However, there will be no good laboratory practice without excellence in quality and professionalism.  This study was proposed to apply quality in the medical microbiology   laboratory using proper isolation system, culture for microorganisms, antibiotics sensitivity testing and DNA sequencing for bacteria resistant to antibiotics in surgical site infection.

      Methods: We evaluated this study by using Molecular techniques in Microbiology laboratory, Bacterial DNA prepared for PCR according to the standard method. DNA concentration was determined using spectrophotometer, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by applying the agar diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations, Standard quality Measures, such as standard operation procedures, quality of environment, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is a software package used in statistical analysis of data.

      Result: In total, 80 resistant isolates (18 Gram positive and 62 Gram negative). All S. aureus isolates were resistant to both penicillin and oxacillin. K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular screening of carbanemase genes was based on a previously published multiplex PCR technique. Recent studies show that not only bacteria, but also bacterial genes can move freely among humans, animals and the environment (Oliveira P.H., et al, 2007). In our study the resistant Gram-negative rods (GNR) were a common finding, confirming their increased prevalence in hospital-associated drug-resistant infections. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the presence of important clinical pathogens in patients with post-surgical nosocomial infection, which are likely to be released in the environment

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 4

      In vitro anti-influenza virus activity of Rooibos tea

      Mona Timan Idriss Gassab

      Background:  Influenza virus is a major public health and its control continues to be a challenge. One of the possible sources of anti-influenza active agents might be Rooibos teas (RT), with various pharmacological actions.

      Methods: We searched for anti-influenza activity using standard in vitro antiviral assays such as Inhibition of virus induced cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, inhibition of viral plaques, and hemagglutination assay. Time-of-addition assay was performed to target an event in the virus life cycle.

      Results: RT crude extract showed anti-influenza activity and the 50% effective inhibitory concentration (CC50) was 4%, while IC50 for A/WSN/33 was 0.13%, when they were measured with both Crystal violet and Water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assays. The virus-induced cytopathic effects were thus significantly reduced.  Plaque assays demonstrated that RT extracts reduced virus infectivity markedly in dose dependent manner, when the viruses were treated with RT extract before exposure and post exposure to MDCK cells. In contrast, pretreatment of MDCK cells with RT extracts before influenza virus infection did not affect virus infectivity. The inhibitory effect of RT extract was observed against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/WSN/33 and A/HK/8/68 (H3N2) and influenza B. Our results suggest that RT extract contains anti-influenza virus substances that directly affects influenza virus particles and disrupts the function of virus adsorption to host cells.

      Conclusions: These results have exposed the capability of the extracted RT for strongly inhibit influenza virus replication and offers an opportunity for the development of a new anti-influenza virus agent.

      Young Research Forum Pages: 1 - 3

      Young Researchers Forum - Young Scientist Awards Nephrology Summit 2020

      Gerald Tan

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