Background: Renal biopsy (RB) is a significant advance in the management of kidney disease. In sub-Saharan Africa, few studies were conducted.
The objective of our work was to evaluate the indications of RB, to determine the epidemiological and histological characteristics of nephropathies
diagnosed in sub-Saharan Africa.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study on RBs examined between January 2015 and December 2019,
at the Pathological Anatomy and Cytology Departments of Cocody-Abidjan and Bouaké Teaching Hospitals. RBs came from four African
countries (Côte d'Ivoire, Togo, Guinea-Conakry and Burkina Faso). Optical microscopy and/or direct immunofluorescence techniques were used.
Included in this study were RBs containing epidemiological, clinical, biological and anatomic pathological data (optical microscopy and/or direct
immunofluorescence). The parameters studied were: indication of RB, epidemiological and clinical profile, proteinuria and histology.
Results: Over the study period, we collected 179 RBs, or 35.8 RBs/year. The mean age of patients was 32.9 13.8 years (extremes of 11 and 70
years). The sex ratio (M/F) was 1.03. Nephrotic syndrome was the main indication (64.2%, n=115) followed by persistent acute kidney disease
(7.8%, n=14), rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (7.3%, n=13), nephrotic syndrome with chronic kidney disease (6.1%, n=11), isolated chronic
kidney disease (5.6%, n=10) and other indications (8.9, n=16). Glomerular nephropathy (GN) was observed in 97.8% (n=175) and tubulointerstitial
disease (TID) in 2.2% (n=4). Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (34.6%, n=62), nephrotangiosclerosis (10.6%, n=19), extramembranous
GN (10%, n=18), post-infectious GN (8.9%, n=16), lupus GN (7.3%, n=13) were the main nephropathies.
Conclusion: The Renal biopsy is a crucial gesture for the diagnosis of nephropathy. Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is the main nosology. The
establishment of a kidney registry would allow a better knowledge and management of kidney pathologies in sub-Saharan Africa.