Hassan Hemeg Garima Chouhan, Mohammad Islamuddin, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani Ozbak and Farhat Afrin
Hamdard University, India
Taibah University, Saudi Arabia
Scientific Tracks Abstracts: J Med Microb Diagn
Exploration of immunomodulatory antileishmanials of plant origin is strongly recommended to overcome the immune suppression evident during visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and high cost and toxicity associated with conventional chemotherapeutics. In accordance, we assessed the in vitro and in vivo antileishmanial and immunomodulatory potential of ethanolic fractions of Azadirachta indica leaves (ALE) and seeds (ASE). A. indica fractions were prepared by sequential extraction of the powdered plant parts in hexane, ethanol and water. ALE and ASE (500 ├?┬╝g ml├ó┬?┬?1) exhibited leishmanicidal activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner (IC50 of 34 and 77.66 ├?┬╝g ml├ó┬?┬?1, respectively) with alterations in promastigote morphology and induction of apoptosis. ALE and ASE exerted appreciable anti-amastigote potency (IC50 of 17.66 and 24.66 ├?┬╝g ml├ó┬?┬?1, respectively) in Leishmania parasitized RAW 264.7 macrophages that was coupled with profound in vivo therapeutic efficacy (87.76% and 85.54% protection in liver and 85.55% and 83.62% in spleen, respectively) in L. donovani infected BALB/c mice. ALE exhibited minimal toxicity to RAW macrophages as studied by MTT assay ex vivo with selectivity index of 26.10, whereas, ASE was observed to be non-toxic. The bioactive fractions revealed no hepato- and nephro-toxicity in vivo. ALE and ASE potentiated Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity along with upregulation of INF-├?┬│, TNF-├?┬▒ and IL-2 and decline in IL-4 and IL-10 levels. Gas chromatography├ó┬?┬?mass spectrometry analysis revealed several secondary metabolites that may have contributed to the observed antileishmanial effect. Dual antileishmanial and immunostimulatory efficacy exhibited by the bioactive fraction merits their use alone or as adjunct therapy for VL.
Hassan Hemeg has completed his Master’s in Pathological Science from Sheffield University, UK and PhD from King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. He has earned several honors such as Fellow of Institute of Biomedical Science, UK and Certified Canadian Accreditation Specialist for Health Care Facilities. He acquired training in Microbiology from Sheffield and Bristol Universities, UK and US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. He is a member, secretary and chairman of several committees. His research interest is in the field of Antimicrobial Resistance. He has published several papers in journals of international repute.
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis received 1059 citations as per Google Scholar report