Immunoreactivity of foot and mouth disease virus encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Immunoreactivity of foot and mouth disease virus encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles

Global Veterinary Microbiology and Veterinary Medicine Summit

October 17-18, 2016 Chicago, USA

Ramya Kalaivanan and Subodh Kishore

Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, India
Indian Veterinary Research Institute, India

Posters & Accepted Abstracts: J Veterinar Sci Techno

Abstract :

Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of cloven footed animals with significant economic impact. The organism which causes FMD is an Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae. There are three serotypes (A, O and Asia1) prevalent in India. More than 80% of the outbreaks are caused by serotype ├ó┬?┬?O├ó┬?┬?. Currently, the disease is being prevented by vaccinating the animals with inactivated and mineral oil adjuvanted vaccine which are incapable of giving sterile immunity though significant titers of neutralizing antibodies in the serum are produced. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles to induce mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine strain ├ó┬?┬?O IND R2/75├ó┬?┬? was encapsulated in biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. Chitosan nanoparticles containing the inactivated FMDV vaccine against FMD (FMDV-CS-NPs) were produced with good morphology, high stability, a mean diameter of 615.3 nm, an encapsulation rate of 64-69% and a zeta potential of +46.07 mV. The virus release assay results of FMDV-CS-NPs indicated that FMDV was released from FMDV-CS-NPs with an initial burst release of 21%. The nasal secretory IgA levels were significantly high in the nasal fluid of the calves immunized with FMDV-CS-NPs intranasally as compared to the other groups. Calves immunized intranasally or intamuscularly with FMDVCS- NPs were partially protected as compared to the calves immunized with inactivated vaccine which showed 75% protection on challenge infection with 10,000 BID50 virulent virus after 45 days post primary immunization. The chitosan nanoparticles can be used for protecting and delivering the antigen to the targeted sites.

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