Commentary - (2021) Volume 8, Issue 4
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a stroke which lasts only for few minutes. It happens when the blood supply is blocked to part of the brain. Symptoms of a transient ischemic attack are like other stroke symptoms, but do not last long .
Transient ischemic attack is called as mini stroke, it may be a warning. About 1 in 3 people who have a transient ischemic attack will have a stroke, with about half occurring within a year after the transient ischemic attack [2,3].
Transient ischemic attack is often a warning sign for future strokes. Medication like blood thinners may reduce the risk of stroke. In few more cases doctor may also recommend surgery. By maintaining a healthy lifestyle, it will be helpful to the individual which lower the risk. Healthy lifestyle includes quitting smoking, quitting excess alcohol intake, healthy diet, and physical exercise. It is also important to control other health problems, like blood pressure and cholesterol .
Symptoms of Transient Ischemic Attack
The signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attack disappear within an hour, symptoms lasts up to 24 hours which is a rare condition . A transient ischemic attack resembles which are found in early stroke and include sudden onset of:
Causes of Transient Ischemic Attack
A transient ischemic attack has the same origins as that of an ischemic stroke, and it is the most common type of stroke. In an ischemic stroke, a clot blocks the supply of blood to part of the brain. In a transient ischemic attack, unlike a stroke, the blockage is brief, and there is no permanent damage. The underlying cause of a transient ischemic attack is a buildup of cholesterol-containing fatty deposits called atherosclerosis (plaques) in an artery or one of its branches which supplies oxygen and nutrients to the brain.
Plaques (atherosclerosis) can decrease the blood flow through an artery or it may lead to the development of a clot. A blood clot moving towards the artery which supplies to brain from another part of the body, mostly from heart and also causes a TIA.
Risk factors of Transient Ischemic Attack
Few risk factors that we cannot change are hereditary (family history), age, sex, prior transient ischemic attack, sickle cell disease. Few risk factors which can control are blood pressure, cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, diabetes, high levels of homocysteine, excess weight like obesity, lifestyle (Cigarette smoking, Physical activity, Poor nutrition, Heavy drinking, Use of illicit drugs like cocaine, etc.) .
It can be prevented by controlling the health with a good diet, exercise, and healthy lifestyle.
1. Caren, Solomon G, and Pierre Amarenco. "Transient Ischemic Attack". N Engl J Med 382(2020):1933–1941.
2. Donald, Easton J, Jeffrey, Saver L, Gregory , Albers W, and Mark J Alberts, et al. "Definition and Evaluation of Transient Ischemic Attack: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council; Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia; Council on Cardiovascular Radiology and Intervention; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and the Interdisciplinary Council on Peripheral Vascular Disease: The American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this statement as an educational tool for neurologists". Stroke 40(2009):2276–2293.
3. Coutts, S B, Hill, M D, Simon, J E, and Sohn, C. H, et al. "Silent ischemia in minor stroke and TIA patients identified on MR imaging". Neurology 65(2005):513–517.
4. Wong, Ka Sing, Caplan, Louis R, and Kim, Jong S. "Stroke Mechanisms Intracranial Atherosclerosis: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Treatment”. Front Neurol Neurosci 40(2017)58–71.