Levamisole-induced Vasculitis in a Burn Surgical Therapy and Results of a Case Series

Journal of Vasculitis

ISSN: 2471-9544

Open Access

Opinion - (2022) Volume 8, Issue 3

Levamisole-induced Vasculitis in a Burn Surgical Therapy and Results of a Case Series

Rachel Christine*
*Correspondence: Rachel Christine, Department of Surgery, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA, Email:
Department of Surgery, University of Miami, Coral Gables, Florida, USA

Received: 09-May-2022, Manuscript No. JOV-22-71034; Editor assigned: 13-May-2022, Pre QC No. P-71034; Reviewed: 20-May-2022, QC No. Q-71034; Revised: 23-May-2022, Manuscript No. R-71034; Published: 31-May-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/2471-9544.2022.8.150
Citation: Christine, Rachel. “Levamisole-induced Vasculitis in a Burn Surgical Therapy and Results of a Case Series.” J Vasc 8 (2022): 150.
Copyright: © 2022 Christine R. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Levamisole is an anthelmintic medication at first used to treat parasitic worm contaminations notwithstanding different malignant growths and immunologic sickness cycles, for example, rheumatoid joint inflammation, lichen planus, and Crohn's infection because of its immunomodulatory properties. In any case, levamisole was removed from the market in due to detailed secondary effects, including agranulocytosis and skin vasculitis. In the veterinary world, it keeps on being utilized as a deworming drug. Studies have additionally proposed that levamisole may prompt focal sensory system complexities, for example, leukoencephalopathy [1]. As, around of the cocaine consumed in the was debased with levamisole to potentiate the stimulatory impacts of cocaine and increment its mass. Levamisole-incited vasculitis normally presents as a purpuric rash, which regularly emerges on the ears, cheeks, face, limits, bum, and thighs. The rash might display areas of putrefaction and can advance to a full-thickness wound. Histology regularly shows thrombotic or leukocytoclastic vasculitis and at times vascular impediment. However the determination is one of prohibition, the previously mentioned cutaneous signs, a background marked by cocaine use, arthralgia, leukopenia, and positive enemy of neutrophil cytoplasmic immunizer giggles ought to raise doubt for levamisoleinstigated vasculitis.


In the event that levamisole-prompted vasculitis wounds progress to fullthickness putrefaction, careful mediation might be required. Until now, there is no broadly acknowledged normalized treatment calculation for full-thickness, necrotic injuries because of this sickness in spite of the ceaseless expansion in cases and severer introductions in the repeats, all the seriously expanding the need to assess therapy choices to decide the most effective methodology [2]. However there have brought about the improvement of rules or potentially proposals for careful treatment of levamisole-prompted vasculitis in light of a negligible number of patient cases, such distributions are scant and further models are required to give an exhaustive calculation. This study presents information on with levamisole-incited vasculitis with the end goal of assessing their careful administration and adding to the scant [3]. Levamisole-prompted vasculitis is believed to be an immune system intervened vasculitis answered to be available in of levamisole-incited vasculitis cases, while is found in almost In a report of patients with energy related with cocaine ingestion, all patients were found to positive, while half were positive. Double energy for and has been believed to be a marker of medication instigated vasculitis however this isn't required for a conclusive finding.

We have of serious levamisole-initiated vasculitis, which eventually advanced to full-thickness putrefaction. Our review reinforces the proof that patients with full-thickness putrefaction prompted by levamisole-initiated vasculitis significantly benefit from quick extraction and debridement, yet in addition from treatment in a consume focus, which has the suitable assets [4].

Most instances of levamisole-incited vasculitis will mend with levamisole end, however a little subset of cases that cause full-thickness putrefaction require pressing careful mediation. Our patients recuperated from this maculopathy with a mix of earnest careful injury debridement followed via autografting, all uniting, and engrafting. While current treatment rules for levamisole-actuated vasculitis comprise of end of levamisole use, there are no generally taken on agreement rules with respect to the ideal course of events for careful administration of full-thickness putrefaction brought about by levamisole-incited vasculitis. In any case, Miner et al propose that early careful extraction gives ideal patient results and keeps away from the horribleness saw with deferred extraction. Other contextual analyses prescribe deferred extraction to limit potential unite misfortune [5]. As far as we can tell, dire injury debridement was played out no later than to eliminate necrotic tissue and reduction microbial tainting of the injury.


Further twisted debridement is performed until a sound seeming wound bed is gotten. Autografting is just performed after the injury bed seems sound used to pulverize the injury bed with the end goal of setting it up for skin uniting. While the pace of fractional unite misfortune in patients with full-thickness corruption brought about by levamisole-prompted vasculitis stays higher than whatever is seen with consumes and different injuries, we property this to the restricted vascular stock connected with the hidden illness pathology, which regularly targets little and medium estimated veins. Further case reports of patients with a serious show of this condition and their careful and non-careful results are expected to normalize careful.


  1. Abousy, Mya, Scott Sylvester, David Milek and C. Scott Hultman. "Surgical management and outcomes of levamisole-induced vasculitis in a burn center: A case series." JAAD C Rep 13 (2021): 36-42.
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  3. Ching, Jessica A and David J. Smith Jr. "Levamisole-induced necrosis of skin, soft tissue, and bone: case report and review of literature.J Bu Ca Rese 33 (2012): e1-e5.
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  5. Miner, Jason, Paul Gruber, Travis L. Perry. "Early excision and grafting, an alternative approach to the surgical management of large body surface area levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced skin necrosis.Bu 41 (2015): e34-e40.
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  7. Gillis, Joshua A., Peter Green and Jason Williams. "Levamisole-induced vasculopathy: Staging and management." J Plas Reconstruc Aesth Surg 67 (2014): e29-e31.
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  9. McEvenue, Giancarlo, Michael Brichacek, Sarvesh Logsetty, and Shar Shahrokhi. "Surgical management of levamisole-adulterated cocaine induced soft tissue necrosis: Case study and treatment algorithm." J Bu Ca Rese 38 (2017): e638-e646.
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