Asymmetry in the Breasts of Women Seeking Breast Surgery

Journal of Surgery

ISSN: [Jurnalul de chirurgie]
ISSN: 1584-9341

Open Access

Mini Review - (2022) Volume 18, Issue 12

Asymmetry in the Breasts of Women Seeking Breast Surgery

Michael Jonczyk*
*Correspondence: Michael Jonczyk, Department of Surgery, University of Tufts, Boston, MA 02111, USA, Email:
Department of Surgery, University of Tufts, Boston, MA 02111, USA

Received: 28-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. jos-22-83746; Editor assigned: 30-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. P-83746; Reviewed: 15-Dec-2022, QC No. Q-83746; Revised: 20-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. R-83746; Published: 28-Dec-2022 , DOI: 10.37421/1584-9341.2022.18.71
Citation: Jonczyk, Michael. “Asymmetry in the Breasts of Women Seeking Breast Surgery.” J Surg 18 (2022): 71.
Copyright: © 2022 Jonczyk M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Women who seek breast augmentation have a high prevalence of breast asymmetries. However, it is unknown how common breast asymmetries are among women undergoing other kinds of breast surgeries. In a prospective plastic surgery database, the measurements of the breasts of consecutive women who were being evaluated for breast plastic surgery but had not had any prior breast surgery were recorded. They were arranged into three gatherings as per the introducing bosom issue: macromastia, ptosis and hypoplastic breasts Correlations were made between the right and left half of every patient with respect to the evenness of the areola complex (size and position), bosom hill and chest wall.


Asymmetry • Breast • Breast surgery


Scarpa and Camper described layers of fat and fascia between muscle and skin in the early nineteenth century, which led to the first reports of superficial fascia. On the Anatomy of the Breast, written by Sir Astley Cooper, was published in 1840. Regarding the fascia mammae, Cooper wrote that it had two layers—one that was anterior to the breast gland and one that was posterior to it. He mentioned the muscle and skin connections known as "ligamenta suspensoria." These ligaments “form little petals, like a blooming rose, turned forwards to the skin, in the depressions between them the fat is lodged” on the anterior surface of the breast. He stated, axillary and abdominal margin turns upon itself and forms a hem, but the clavicular and sternal margin makes smooth radii." He was referring to the breast's borders.


In order to minimize the impact on the patient's appearance, oncoplastic breast surgery combines various plastic surgery procedures with a resection of breast cancer. The classification of oncoplastic breast surgery, the management of larger tumors that would otherwise necessitate a mastectomy and the role of the breast surgeon in immediate breast reconstruction were the subjects of our comparison of current practices in breast surgery in the United Kingdom and Canada. Plastic surgeons have always performed reconstructive breast surgery, but more focused fellowship training and surgical subspecialization have made it possible for breast surgeons with the right skills to perform these procedures. Oncoplastic and reconstructive breast surgery is a new branch of breast surgery that has emerged as a result of this evolution of the breast surgeon. In order to improve breast cancer patients' long-term quality of life, those in charge of developing surgical training programs in Canada must now decide whether to train breast surgeons in these methods.

Vectra® and Breast Sculptur were used to process, overlay and analyze all of the images that were taken at our institute. A special positioning mat is included in the camera equipment, which precisely specifies the patient and photographer's positions for each of the three images. Using a goniometer, the arms' 45-degree angle was checked. Additionally, a telescopic stick was utilized to aid the patient in maintaining the required fixed-arm position. The patient is seen in the first and third images from 45 degrees to the right and left, respectively. The subsequent picture is taken obviously. The images are then assembled into a 3D model by the Vectra® software. 13 reference points are needed to make calculations on the 3D model that comes out. The reference points were marked on the patient before the images were taken and then set appropriately in the software because the Vectra® software's automatic detection of the reference points did not perform as well as anticipated. Other researchers have provided a thorough description of this apparent prevalent issue. We made use of the beneficial effects of marking the reference points in advance.

There are a few specific fellowships in breast surgical oncology in Canada and Western University has a great fellowship program. Two separate distributions have not just portrayed the ongoing individual's logbook, showing an extensive variety of oncoplastic and reconstructive surgeries, yet additionally summed up oncoplastic preparing potential open doors in Canada. An oncoplastic and research fellowship at the University of Ottawa includes exposure to breast reconstruction. A one-year breast surgical oncology fellowship at the University of Toronto provides students with exposure to oncoplastic surgery. In a similar vein, Western University also provides a breast fellowship that lasts one year and includes instruction in oncoplastic surgery. Every few months, the oncoplastic partnership workshop is a cadaveric workshop open to breast surgeons who perform more than 20 surgeries per year. This innovative and one-of-a-kind workshop, which is held in London, Ontario, Toronto and Ottawa, remembers a handsfor meeting as well as instructive showing on all parts of oncoplastic bosom a medical procedure and areola saving mastectomy [1-3].

Würinger and co their dissection technique artificially creates an artificial suspensory sling by dividing the circummammary ligament and ignoring the connective tissue adhesion of the superior breast. They commit the same error by assuming that the breast is supported by three ligaments that form a suspensory sling. Additionally, their anatomical research was conducted on postmenopausal female cadavers from the 1970s to the 1980s. Ptosis and decline in connective tissue, as well as parenchymal involution and fatty replacement, were evident in these specimens. It's possible that they mistook an atrophied corpus mammalian anterior capsule for a septum. This may appear to divide the breast gland into a superior and inferior third in a fatty-depleted postmenopausal breast. The anterior lamella fat below could be mistaken for additional breast tissue in obese women with large breasts. Research by Carlson and others less than 0.02 percent of breast glandular tissue was found in this area in the middle of the 1990s. We believe that we have discovered a portion of the "ligamentous suspension of the mammary gland" that travels beneath the gland rather than through it [4,5].


In the preoperative setting, these aspects must be discussed in detail with patients and the surgeon should stress that direct-to-implant IBR has a higher rate of reoperation and/or initial reconstructive failure in addition to the possibility of a shorter reconstructive course. The complication rate can be decreased by using intraoperative objective assessment tools like real-time perfusion mapping with SPY (Novadaq Technologies Inc., Bonita Springs, FL, USA). However, these devices frequently cost a lot of money, take a long time to use and are not readily available at all surgical facilities.



Conflict of Interest

There are no conflicts of interest by author.


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