Chromosome | Open Access Journals

Abnormal and Behavioural Psychology

ISSN: 2472-0496

Open Access


Long before the advent of “next-generation” or even “first-generation” sequencing, biologists could observe the genome of an organism using relatively simple cytogenetic methods. As a result, we now have information about the number and structure of chromosomes in thousands of organisms. Even at this relatively crude level of observation, it is clear that there is extensive variation in chromosome number and structure among species, and that there can even be dramatic differences in karyotype between closely related species. Cytogenetic studies have also revealed that males and females of many species differ in karyotype with visible sex chromosomes. Understanding both the causes and consequences of such changes in chromosome number and structure has been of long-standing interest to evolutionary biologists Evolutionary geneticists like Theodosius Dobzhansky focused on chromosomal inversions, not only as polymorphisms that varied within species, but also as potential drivers of divergence and speciation However, the development of molecular biology shifted the focus of many evolutionary biologists to sequence-based variation, and interest in the role of chromosomal change in evolutionary processes fell mostly out of vogue.

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