Journal of Microbial Pathogenesis

ISSN: 2684-4931

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Determination of in-vitro Optimum Conditions of Xylanase Enzyme Activity Produced by Orpinomyces sp. and Neocallimastix sp.

    Halit Yucel and Ferudun Kocer*

    DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2684-4931.2022.6.124

    In this study of Orpinomyces sp. and Neocallimastix sp., it was aimed to determine the in-vitro optimum conditions of xylanase enzyme activity produced by fungi. In the study, xylanase enzyme activity was investigated in terms of extracellular and intracellular Total Activity (TA) and Specific Activity (SA) levels at different time (day), pH and temperature levels.

    Orpinomyces sp. and Neocallimastix sp. when different days (time) were considered in terms of xylanase enzyme activity of fungi species, it was determined that there was a statistically significant positive correlation between TA=0.732 and SA=0.546 (p<0.01). It was determined that there was a statistically positive and significant relationship between TA=0.622 and SA= 0.520 at different pH levels. This situation differs in terms of temperature levels. It was determined that there was a statistically negative significant relationship between genders and SA=-0.354 (p<0.05). In this study, it is thought to contribute by determining the optimum conditions in in-vitro and industrial uses.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Immunomodulatory Effect of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) in Escherichia coli Induced Infected Broiler Chicks

    Iqra Asghar, Farzana Rizvi*, Muhammad Wasim Usmani, Muhammad Zulqarnain Shakir, Nasir Mahmood, Muhammad Numan, Muhammad Sohaib Ikram and Namra Waqar

    DOI: 10.37421/2684-4931.2022.6.129

    Immune-modulatory effect of turmeric (Curcuma longa) was investigated in Escherichia (E.) coli induced infected broiler chicks. A flock of one hundred broiler birds were purchased and divided equally into four equal groups (A-D). Negative and positive control were assigned to groups A and B respectively. Birds of groups C and D were supplemented with turmeric at 10g/kg of feed from 10th to 42nd days of age. Birds of groups B and D were given a pathogenic strain of E. coli (1×104 CFU/ml/bird) on their 15th day of age. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay was used to assess the humoral immune response to SRBCs and NDV. An avian tuberculin test and a carbon clearance assay were used for cellular immune response. Levels of IgA and IgG were determined through ELISA. Results showed that antibody titers against NDV and SRBCs were significantly higher (p<0.05) in the turmeric supplemented group. Similarly, levels of IgA and IgG were significantly higher (p<0.05) in birds supplemented with turmeric. The phagocytic index and lymphoproliferative response were significantly higher in the turmeric supplemented groups C and D as compared to control groups A and B. The findings of this study revealed that 10g/kg of dietary turmeric supplementation in broiler feed improves the cellular and humoral immune responses of broiler birds.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Human Lymph Node Samples in Urmia, Iran Using PCR with GRA6 Gene from 2020 to 2021

      Mohammad Yousefzadeh , Somayyeh Vakili Yekan

      Background: Toxoplasmosis is one of the most common parasitic infections caused by a protozoan named Toxoplasma gondii. Humans and carnivores can become infected by eating tissue cysts in row or semi-cooked meat or oocysts from cat feces. The aim of this study was investigation of different genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from cat feces, lamb and human pathological samples to determine the dominant types in Urmia city by amplifying GRA6 gen using PCR method. Materials and Methods: Meat samples were collected from butchery shops of Urmia city by cutting a small piece of diaphragm muscle. DNA extraction and PCR was done on these samples after being chopped. Stool samples from stray cats were collected from ruins and parks, and oocysts were concentrated by ethyl acetate formalin and were stained with acid fast technique. Microscopically positive samples were analyzed with PCR. The lymph node specimens were collected by reviewing the pathological records of Dr. Nemati Laboratory in Urmia city. The specimens that were suspected of toxoplasmosis, were also examined after hematoxylin eosin staining and microscopic confirmation, by PCR. Finally, 20 positive PCR products, including 5 stools, 5 lamb, 5 beef and 5 human lymph node samples were sent for sequencing. Results: Of the 20 cat feces samples suspected of having Toxoplasma oocysts, 7 samples were confirmed by PCR and from the 100 selected Lymph Node specimens, 5 samples were confirmed microscopically and PCR .sixty percent of 60 meat samples were also infected. Also, thirty percent of 60 beef samples were positive with PCR. Finally, out of 100 samples of Goat milk, 8 samples were positive and we were able to determine with PCR. Analysis of DNA sequencing revealed that all 5 lymph node specimens were from ME49 (genotype II) strain. lamb specimens were shown to be from ME49 (2 samples), GT1 or genotype I (2 samples), and VEG or genotype III (one sample) genotypes and four of five oocysts from stools samples were ME49, VEG or genotype III (one sample) strain and all beef samples were related to ME49 (genotype II) strain.Also, 2 samples of goat milk are related to GT1 or genotype I strain and 3 other cases are related to ME49 (genotype II) strain. So most of our samples were of ME49 strain. Conclusion: Genotyping is important because it can be used to identify the dominant genotype in the region and subsequently to take specific control measures as well as therapeutic measures against the risk of involved genotype. Most of the genotypes we obtained during this study, were of type II and this genotype appears to be predominant genotype in Urmia and regarding extremely high infection rate of meat samples, it seems that humans are mostly infected with Toxoplasma gondii by eating raw or undercooked meat.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        Green Synthesis of Cobalt and Copper Nanoparticles from Extract of Rumex Hastatus and Their Biological Evaluation

        Taj Ur Rahman*, Babar Hussain, Abdul Hameed, wajiha Liaqat and Shehriyar Khan

        The cobalt and copper nanoparticles are gaining wider attention due to their applications in medicines, chemistry, biotechnology and agriculture. In the present study, cobalt and copper nanoparticles were synthesized by green technology using leaf extract of Rumex hastatus and characterized by Ultraviolet-visible Spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) technologies. The synthesis of nanoparticles were observed by colour change of reaction mixture and UVVisible spectrum showed maximum absorption peaks at 620 nm and 570 nm for copper and cobalt nanoparticles respectively. The FT-IR spectrum of Rumex hastatus leaf extract showed prominent peaks at 3240-2400 cm-1 (O-H stretch), 1710 cm-1 (C=O stretch), 1654cm-1 (C=C stretch) and 1618cm-1 (C=C stretch). However, these peaks were absent in the spectrum of cobalt and copper nanoparticles, meaning that these functional groups are involved in the reduction of cobalt and copper ions into their metallic nanoparticles. The SEM result showed irregular, spherical shape crystallites with rough surface. The average size for cobalt and copper nanoparticles were found in 52 nm and 78 nm respectively. The cobalt strongly inhibits the growth of P.aereginosa while copper nanoparticles strongly inhibit the growth of E.coli. The experimental data reveals that cobalt nanoparticles have more α-amylase inhibition activity than copper. The anti-glycation activity of cobalt nanoparticles is more than copper nanoparticles while copper nanoparticles have more anti-oxidizing potential than cobalt nanoparticles.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Identification and Antimicrobial Resistance Profile of Major Gastrointestinal Bacteria in Monkey (Olive Baboon)

        Khalid Z Rasib*, Saniya yaqoob, Syed Zeeshan Haider, Kiran Saleem and Faiza Pervaiz

        All higher animals are associated with a diverse microbial community, mainly composed of bacteria. Diversity of gut micro-biota and health depends upon the food and environment. Zoo provides unintentionally diverse population exposure of microbes to animals as well as humans. About 60% of all human diseases and approximately 75% of emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic. Fecal samples were collected of Olive Baboon kept at Lahore zoo. Samples were collected by using sterilized polythene bags and shifted to the laboratory of Microbiology of IMBB Department of University of Lahore immediately. Primary isolation was done on Nutrient agar and resulting growth was shifted on Differential media by streaking method. Gram staining was performed for the confirmation of bacteria. Pure colonies of bacteria were isolated through selective media. Different biochemical tests were performed for the further confirmation of genus of bacteria. Different bacteria such as E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella, Klebsiella spp., and Bacillus cereus were isolated. Antimicrobial resistivity of isolated bacteria was checked by using different antimicrobial discs and the zone of inhibition was measured in mm.

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