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Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry

ISSN: 2380-2391

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    A Comparison of Iodine Values of Some Common Vegetable Oils Use in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State, Nigeria

    Christopher Unyime Ebong*

    Vegetable oils are triglycerides extract from plants and made of up of fatty acid chains. The fatty acids can be saturated or unsaturated depending on the number of carbon-carbon double bonds. The degree of saturation/unsaturation is indicated by the iodine value of the oil. Hence this research work was aimed at comparing the iodine values of five different vegetable oil (groundnut oil, palm oil, olive oil, palm kernel oil and coconut oil) samples bought from Swali market, Yenagoa, Bayelsa state in Nigeria. The vegetable oils were analyzed for their iodine values and the following results were obtained: For groundnut oil, the iodine values were found to be 86.00 g I2/100 g, olive oil 81.01 g I2/100 g, palm oil 53.91 g I2/100 g, palm kernel oil 36.74 g I2/100 g and coconut oil 10 g I2/100 g. The iodine values of the five vegetable oil samples analyzed follows the order: Groundnut oil > Olive oil > Palm oil > Palm kernel oil > Coconut oil. Since their iodine values are lower than 100, these oils are considered to be a non-drying oil which does not harden when it is exposed to air and therefore can be used industrially for the production of hard soaps and are of good nutritional value, hence the oils pose no significant health risks to consumers. Thus, the result of these findings shows that the iodine values obtained were within the regulatory standard and did not exceed the permissible level.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Baseline Distribution of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in an Aquatic Organism from Crude Oil Polluted Environment

    Nworu Jerome Sunday*, Ikelle Issie Ikelle, Okpoebi Kenneth Berezi, Peter CC Wang, Arisabor Lucky and Odiyirin Paul Boyitie

    In this study, the total concentration of n-alkanes is reported as Æ©Aliphatics, total concentration of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon as Æ©PAH and Æ©TPH for the total petroleum hydrocarbon. The values reported followed different trends. For the Æ©Aliphatics, the gills had the highest average concentration while the kidney had the lowest average concentration. For Æ©PAH, the muscle had the highest average concentration while the gills had the lowest average concentration. In summation Æ©TPH, the gill had the highest average concentration while the kidney had the lowest average concentration. The results showed that the organs studied are good bio-accumulators. This study therefore revealed that, there are substantial exposure and bioaccumulation in the commonly consumed tilapia fish species in Kurutie/Okerenkoko from Escravos River and there could be possible human risk to cancer and other related health challenges.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Lead and Zinc Evaluation in Cows Feeding on Forage and Fodder Grown in Soil Contaminated with Waste Water in Sargodha, Pakistan

      Kafeel Ahmad, Zafar Iqbal Khan, Shamayem Aslam*, Sahar Monsoor, Shahzad Akhtar, Aima Iram Batool, Hafsa Memona, Muhammad Nadeem, Asma Ashfaq and Hazoor Ahmad Shad

      DOI: 10.37421/2380-2391.2022.9.383

      Three Tahsil; Jhanwarian, Sahiwal and Silanwaali of district Sargodha, Pakistan were selected for this project. Municipal waste water was used for irrigation to grow forages and fodder. The main target of this study comprises the assessment of Lead and Zinc in fodder and forage crops. Furthermore, the soil in which the forages are grown up was also appraised to acquire pollution load index. The concentration of Lead and Zinc was assessed in cows nurturing on the fodder being irrigated by wastewater. Concentrations of Lead and Zinc in fodder samples were found in the range from 9.50 mg kg-1 to 14.14 mg kg-1 and 16.49 mg kg-1 and 8.60 mg kg-1 respectively. The allowable limit level for Lead in plants is 3.0 ppm while the concentration of Lead in this study were found more than that limit (Allen, 1989). On the other hand, the concentration of Zinc was found within limit as prescribed by WHO; 50 mg/kg (2018). The concentration of Lead in wastewater was found in wide-ranging between 0.09-0.45 mg/L and zinc 3.41-5.83 mg/L. The levels of Lead in water were found to be higher than the WWF-recommended safe limit (0.10) (2007). Concentration of Lead and Zinc in soil varied between 10.11 mg kg-1 to 13.85 mg kg-1 and 27.76 mg kg-1 to 37.25 mg kg-1 respectively. In the blood of cows, the mean concentrations of Lead were found to be 0.136-1.918 mg kg-1 and concentration of Zinc was 0.136-1.918 mg kg-1. Pollution load index value of Lead and Zinc ranged between 1.25 to 1.69 and 1.25-1.699 respectively. Bio concentration factor of Lead and Zinc were found to be in the range from 0.82 to 1.12 and 0.25 to 0.54 respectively. DIM of Lead and Zinc ranges between 0.01615-0.024 and 0.0145-0.028 respectively. (2.25-3.0) and (0.024-0.016) values were measured for enrichment factor of Lead and Health risk index separately. Enrichment factor and health risk index of Zinc ranges between (0.1100-0.1811) and (0.0465-0.0934) respectively.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      Evaluation of Arsenic Health Risk Assessment to Human Population by Consumption of Cereal Food Crops Irrigated with Diverse Types of Water

      Zafar Iqbal Khan, Kanwal Sultana, Kafeel Ahmad, Shahzad Akhtar, Shaista Jabeen, Shamayem Aslam*, Aima Iram Batool, Hafsa Memona, Shahida Parveen, Muhammad Nadeem and Mobeen Fatima

      DOI: 10.37421/2380-2391.2022.9.384

      Arsenic considered as in the concentration of the soil, water and cereals of Sargodha, Punjab, Pakistan. Three different sites of Sargodha that were selected for sampling, these sites were irrigated with 3 different water resources. Site one irrigated with municipal sewage, the site two irrigated with canal water and the site three irrigated with ground water. The site 1 in which municipal sewage have high level of the heavy metals. For soil maximum PLI (Pollution load index) was perceived in Zea mays (3.02 mg/kg) and the minimum PLI concentration was in Linum usitatissimum (1.83 mg/kg). For soil maximum BCF (Bio-concentration factor) was detected in Pennisetum glaucum (0.38 mg/kg) and the minimum BCF concentration was prescribed in Zea mays at site 1. For soil the maximum Enrichment factor (EF) was prescribed in Triticum aestivum (100.8 mg/kg) and the minimum EF concentration was detected in Pennisetum glaucum (10.41mg/kg) at site one. For soil the maximum DIM (Daily intake of metals) was prescribed in Zea mays (1.46 mg/kg) and the minimum DIM concentration was detected in Linum usitatissimum (0.00106 mg/kg) at site 1. For soil the maximum Health risk index (HRI) was prescribed in Pennisetum glaucum (6.12 mg/kg) and the minimum HRI concentration was detected in Zea mays (0.048 mg/kg) at site 1. In water, the Arsenic value was higher than standard value and also fewer in soil and cereal crops. The DIM value, BCF, PLI, EF, and HRI were higher than standard limit.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 11

        Levels of selected essential and non-essential metals in rice and the underlying soil in major rice-growing areas of Ethiopia

        Abebe D Abitew* and Biruk B Yimam

        DOI: 10.37421/2380-2391.2023.10.430

        The concentrations of essential metals (Ca, Mg, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) and non-essential metals (Cd and Pb) were determined in Ethiopian white rice cultivated in Fogera, Metema, and Pawe areas with their corresponding growing soils. The amounts of metals in rice and soil were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry, after digesting the powdered rice and soil samples with a mixture of HNO3, HClO4, and H2O2. The accuracy of the digestion procedure was assessed using the spiking method, where an acceptable percentage metal recovery was obtained in the range of 86.6%-106.7% and 87.15%-112.8% for rice and soil, respectively. The concentrations (mg/kg) of metals found in rice and soil, respectively, were in the ranges of Mg 414.28-560.89, 618.70-709.43; Fe 49.36-167.95, 11673.60-12916.67; Ca 45.21-57.71, 281.60-655.20; Mn 27.40-57.71, 168.60-416.60; Cu 12.01-61.19, 59.98-139.66; Zn 24.19-28.07, 26.59-55.85; Cr 17.65-27.45, 12.75-12.76; Ni 3.16-8.61, 2.07-11.87; Cd 1.08-1.55, 1.08-3.43 and Pb 1.08-1.55, 4.17-9.38. The pH of the studied soil farms was in the range of 5.30-5.95. Among the analyzed metals Cr showed the maximum transfer factor from soil to rice grain. Pearson correlation indicated a strong correlation for some elements between or within rice and soil samples. One way analysis of variance results indicated that for all metals in rice, the difference between means in the three sampling sites was insignificant (p>0.05), while the significant difference among soil samples was observed only for Mg, Zn, Mn, and Cd. Except for Cr, Cd, and Pb in rice and Cu and Cd in metema soil, the determined concentrations of metals were below the world health organization allowed limit.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

          Equilibrium and Kinetic Study on the Abolition of Hexavalent Chromium from Aqueous Solutions Utilizing Xanthated Tea Waste

          Padam Joshi*, Priyanka Chand and Dinesh Bista

          Heavy metal removal is critically necessary to prevent water pollution. At various initial hexavalent chromium concentrations, adsorbent dosages, pHs, and contact periods, the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions onto xanthated tea waste was investigated. FTIR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the adsorbent. Hexavalent chromium was initially removed from aqueous solutions with an increase in adsorbent dosage and contact time, but it was shown that the adsorption of Cr (VI) was best at a contact period of 120 min and an adsorbent dose of 100 mg/L. In a similar manner, the amount of hexavalent chromium eliminated from the aqueous solutions increased as the hexavalent chromium concentration grew and decreased as the solution's pH increased, with pH 2.0 being the ideal. Using a pseudo second-order model, the kinetics of hexavalent chromium adsorption onto modified tea trash was studied. The adsorption equilibrium data were modeled using Langmuir isotherm models. The equilibrium results for the elimination of hexavalent chromium by modified tea trash were well represented by the Langmuir isotherm model. According to the isotherm analysis, the adsorption equilibrium fit the Langmuir isotherm well. At pH 2.0, the obtained maximum adsorption capacity was around 82%. According to the findings, chromium-containing aqueous solutions can be treated using Xanthated Tea Waste as a low-cost adsorbent.

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