Journal of Cytology & Histology

ISSN: 2157-7099

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 5 (2021)

    Volume 12, Issue 9 (2021)

      Research Pages: 1 - 6

      Diagnostic Significance of Fine Needle Aspiration Smear and Cell Block Study in Skin and Subcutaneous Nodules

      Raafat AM Hegazy*, Abdelmonem AM Hegzy Ahmed Raafat Hegazy

      Background: Evaluation of patients with skin or subcutaneous nodules, especially if it was multiple represents a major problem for the clinicians. But with full investigations, the problem becomes easier. However, the final diagnosis depends on pathological reports of tissue biopsy [1]. The easy access of the skin nodule provides the soil for performance fine needle aspiration cytology and taking the samples by the pathologists, or the clinicians. Smear cytology gives many defaults [2]. Performance of cell blocks was a trial to avoid these defaults and improve the diagnosis. The results of smear and cell block examinations were compared with examination of tissue biopsies.

      Methodology: Two hundred twenty five skin and subcutaneous nodules from 225 patients underwent the material of this study. The patients were selected from those referred to pathology department, faculty of medicine Zagazig University, through the period between January 2018 and December 2020. Fine needle aspirations were performed utilizing the ordinary 22-gauge needle 10 cc syringes. Cell blocks were done utilizing the remnants in the syringe after performance of the smears. Histopathological examination was done using biopsies taken later on.

      Results: According to tissue biopsy examination: Benign lesions constitute the commonest findings (180 cases) 80% 0f cases: Lipoma 35 cases (15.5%), Adipose tissue30 cases (13.3%), Fibrolipoma20 cases (8.8%), Fibroma20 cases (8.8%), Juvenile fibroma 5cases (2.2%), Neurofibroma5cases (2.2%), Sebaceous cyst in 25 cases (11.1%), Implantation cyst, or dermoid cyst 20 cases (8.8%), Pilomatrixoma 5cases (2.2%), Seborrheic keratosis10cases (4.4%),Madura foot (actinomycosis) 5 cases (2.2%). Intermediate lesions: Atypical lipoma 5 cases (2.2%). Malignant lesions 25 cases (11.11%): Basal cell carcinoma10 cases (4.4%), squamous cell carcinoma10 cases (4.4%), Basosquamous cell carcinoma 5cases (2.2%). For the FNAC smear examination, the sensitivity test was: 83.01%, the specificity test was: 16.66%. For the cell blocks examination, the sensitivity test was: 97.77%, specificity test was: 100%.

      Conclusion: Smear cytology is an easy, rapid test for diagnosis of skin nodule and performance of cell blocks improves its sensitivity and specificity outcome, but both must be attempted, because smear may be inefficient for some cases while cell block cannot be performed others.

      Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

      Origin and Evolution of Eukaryotes

      L Aravind*

      The endosymbiotic beginning of eukaryotes united two dissimilar genomes in the cell. Also, eukaryotic normal history has included other endosymbiotic occasions, phagotrophic utilization of living beings, and personal associations with infections and endoparasites. These wonders worked with enormous scope sidelong quality exchange and organic contentions. We combine data from almost twenty years of genomics to outline how the exchange between horizontal quality exchange and natural contentions has affected the rise of new variations in eukaryotes. Utilizing apicomplexans as model, we outline how sidelong exchange from creatures has added to extraordinary parasite-have interfaces included grip and O-connected glycosylation-related spaces. Variations, arising because of extraordinary choice for variety in the atomic members in organismal and genomic clashes, being scattered by sidelong exchange, were accordingly exapted for eukaryote-explicit developments. We show this utilizing models identifying with eukaryotic chromatin, RNAi and RNA-preparing frameworks, flagging pathways, apoptosis and invulnerability. We feature the significant commitments from synergist areas of bacterial poison frameworks to the beginning of flagging catalysts (e.g., ADP-ribosylation and little particle courier blend), mutagenic chemicals for invulnerable receptor broadening and RNA-preparing. Also, we examine commitments of bacterial anti-infection or siderophore combination frameworks and intra-genomic and intra-cell childish components (e.g., limitation change, portable components and lysogenic phages) in the rise of chromatin renovating/adjusting chemicals and RNA-based guideline. We foster the idea that organic struggle frameworks filled in as transformative "nurseries" for advancements in the protein world, which were conveyed to eukaryotes through parallel quality stream to spike key developmental advancements right from nucleogenesis to genealogy explicit variations.

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Papanicolaou (Pap) in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

      Shahana A Choudhury*

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      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Cell Cycles of Eukaryotic Microbes

      Catherine J Merrick*

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      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Tuberculosis Drug Discovery and Development

      Vinayak Singh*

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