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Journal of Cytology & Histology

ISSN: 2157-7099

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 12, Issue 2 (2021)

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 7

    Osteochondrolipoma of the Chest Wall Identified on Clinical Breast Exam: A Case Report

    Sudie-Ann Robinson, Colleen M. O, Kelly-Priddy, Aditi Ranade

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    Mini Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Epidemiology of the Novel COVID- 19

    Elizabeth Sentongo

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    Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

    Contribution of cytology in the etiological diagnosis of pleurisy at the Laboratory of Histology-Embryology and Cellular Pathology (LHE / PC) of the Faculty of Health Sciences of Niamey

    Dr Hamadou Ibrahim; Hama Aghali ; Hamani ; Issa Oumarou ; Sewadouno ; Azonbakin ; Aweh Adjongba ; Koutangni ; Mounkaila; Ousseni ); Hassane ; Laleye A

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the contribution of cytology in the process of etiological diagnosis of pleurisy.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective and prospective descriptive study from March 1, 2010 to February 28, 2015. The material used consisted of the results of cytological analysis reports.

    RESULTS: Of the 2012 samples collected, 456 were pleural fluids, an institutional prevalence of 22.66%. Patients under 50 years of age were affected in 49.12% with an average age of 47.5 years and extremes of 10 months and 101 years. The male subject represented 72.81% or a ratio of 2.74. The samples were exudative in 94.52% and the "Hemorrhagic" character found in 52%. 88% of the samples had a cell count and among which, 44% had a leukocyte count ≥ 10,000 / mm³. Lymphocyte reactions were found in 59.16%. 39.22% of patients ≥ 50 years of age had a lymphocyte reaction. In samples with cell atypia, 54.46% were suspected of having a tumor extension and 21.43% were tumor cell atypia of specified origin, of which 8 cases (33.33%) were of ovarian origin. The "Hemorrhagic" character was in 57.27% of the cellular atypies and the lymphocyte reactions in 66.36% of the atypies.

    CONCLUSION: The aim of this study was to understand the contribution of cytology in the process of etiological diagnosis of pleurisy. Patients of all ages were affected, the male was the most represented. A cell count associated with a leukocyte formula and the morphological search for atypical cells made it possible to provide an etiological orientation.

    Volume 12, Issue 3 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

      Clinicocytological Analysis of Hepatic Neoplastic Lesions with Particular Reference to Morphological Pattern Assessment

      Garg Rachana, Anuradha Rao

      Background: The liver is the site of numerous neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions, with neoplastic lesions accounting for a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality. Being a common site for metastatic tumors, it becomes imperative to differentiate the same from hepatocellular carcinoma, owing to varied management modalities involved. Diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), is considered a prominent investigative procedure in this regard. However, it is not without its limitations and disadvantages.

           Aim and Objectives: This retrospective research analyzes the cytological features of hepatic masses, with particular reference to pattern assessment, cellular and nuclear details along with background characteristics of note which could define differentiating characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma from metastatic malignancy. Accompanying clinico-radiological and biochemical parameters that could be helpful in this regard were also studied. An attempt was also made to distinguish the features characteristic to different grades of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

      Method: FNAC of 114 hepatic neoplastic lesions received during a two years period in the pathology department of a tertiary care hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Clinico-radiological and biochemical parameters were correlated, and data thus retrieved was analyzed statistically for relevance.

      Results: Males were predominantly affected both by primary and metastatic malignancy with primary over 60 years of age. Jaundice, history of prior alcohol consumption, pre-existing liver disease, elevated LFT along with AFP levels > 400ng/ml was seen in significant cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. Radiologically, metastasis showed multiple lesions with most cases less than 5cms in diameter with invasion of adjacent structures. Analysis of three characteristic cytological features including presence of cytoplasmic bile, intranuclear inclusions and traversing blood vessel was carried out and it was observed that the highest chance of tumor being HCC was when all three were seen. After analyzing features to differentiate between the different grades of HCC it was observed that as the grades progressed the cells became undifferentiated and similarities increased. Cytohistological correlation was seen in 91.3% of cases of primary and 86.9% of metastatic malignancies.

      Conclusion: Close attention to cytological features like cell clusters, intranuclear inclusions, endothelial rimming in conjunction with radiological images and biochemical markers provide valuable pointers in distinguishing between primary HCC and hepatic metastatic carcinomas thus obviating the need of invasive procedures.

      Research Pages: 1 - 9

      Staining Potentials of Indigenous Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx, Lawsonia inermis Leaves and Vitex Doniana Stem Barks on Liver and Kidney Tissues

      Nnaemeka Okolie*, Ngokere AA and Enweani IB

      Tissues acquired from the bodies of human or animals are transpicuous after tissue processing. Without tissue staining, the individual components of these tissues cannot be seen and appreciated. Haematoxylin extracted from the heartwood of a small tree, Haematoxylin campechlanum (Logwood) alongside synthetic eosin, constitutes the most commonly used Hematoxylin and Eosin staining method in histopathology laboratories. In view of the hazards associated with the use of synthetic stains and the escalating cost of foreign dyes, it has become essential to seek for natural, economic, easy to use, biodegradable, safe (to both human and environmental health) and more eco-friendly alternatives or supplements to the routine Haematoxylin and eosin stains. Thus, the present study is aimed at evaluating the staining potentials of indigenous Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx, Lawsonia inermis leaves and Vitec doniana stem barks on liver and kidney tissue slides. Ethanolic, aqueous, mordant and non mordant sohext extracts of the plant products were substituted for haematoxylin (as primary stains) in the modified haematoxylin and eosin methods. Results revealed that the three plant products imparted various intensities of pink or pale pink colouration on the cytoplasm of the constituent cells without any form of nuclear staining at a concentration of 100mg/ml.Observed acidic nature of all the three plant extracts was probably responsible for their failure to stain the nucleus in keeping with the general staining principle that only basic stains do clour the acidic nucleus. It is recommended that more studies be carried out to provide methods for increasing the pH of the extracts to the alkaline (basic) side of neutrality for effective nuclear staining.

      Research Pages: 1 - 17

      Histopathological, Biochemical and Genetic Profile Post Application of Free Silver Nanoparticles and H2O2 Combined Form in Vitro Study

      Adel-El-bialy, Ahmed M. Mansour, Tamer M. M. Abuamara, Mohamed E. Amer, Rania I Shbel, Emadeldin R Matar, Mohamed Abulghait and Aly Fahmy Mohamed*

      Current studyaimed to evaluate the antiviral activities of free silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and hydrogen peroxide combined silver nanoparticles(AgNP-H2O2) compared to standard IFN-α2a against Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The related biochemical and pathological changes as well asthe expression levels of antiviral biomarkers, namely Mx-A and 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5'-OAS)were investigated. Cytotoxicity of AgNPs and AgNP-H2O2 was monitored against Vero cellsusing MTT assay. Data revealed that the toxicity was concentration dependent and AgNP-H2O2was significantly (P<0.05)toxicthan AgNPs recording an IC50value of 0.864 and7μM/ml, respectively. Oxidative stress markers showed elevated reactive oxygen species and decreased lactate dehydrogenase post treatment with AgNPs and AgNP-H2O2 compared to untreated cellcontrol. Assessment of the antiviral activity of tested particles prior to infection showed thatAgNP-H2O2exhibited higher reduction in the viralinfectivity titer in the order of 76.21% and 57.89% compared to that recorded post infection (34.11% and 36.84%) against HSV-1 and VSV, respectively. Similar pattern was observed in case of AgNPs but with lower depletion rate while, the highest depletion was in case of IFN-α2a. The percentage reduction in the plaque forming units against MERS-CoV were 33.3%, 66.6% and 87.5% post treatment with AgNPs, AgNP-H2O2 and IFN-α2a, respectively.MxA and2'-5'-OAS genes exhibited a signifinat (P<0.05) up-regrulationin. Pathological changes post treatment with tested particles showed signs of apoptosis indicating that although these particles exhibited promising antiviralpotentials, buttheir toxicity profile should be considered.

      Hypothesis Pages: 1 - 7

      Thyroid Oncocytic Cell in Cytological and Histologic Reports: Institutional Experience

      José Marçalo MD*, Mónica Cardoso MD, Dolores López Presa MD and Maria João Bugalho MD, Ph.D

      Purpose: Oncocytic cell tumors, due to historical and clinical reasons, tend to be put in a higher risk category compared with other cell type tumors. We tried to define the malignancy risk for this entity.

      Methods: At our institution, we studied the risk of malignancy associated with a cohort of 107 thyroid nodules aspirates containing oncocytic cells in the cytology report and we have further analyzed other clinical factors.

      Results: A tendency for higher risk of malignancy in male sex was found (31.3% vs. 15.4% in women), the difference, however, was not statistically significant (P = 0.291). Total thyroidectomy was the preferred surgical approach and only 10.3% of patients were submitted to lobectomy. Histopathology reports documented 46.7% hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodules, 31.8% adenomas, 12.1% papillary carcinoma, 3.7% oncocytic cell carcinoma, 2.8% lymphocytic thyroiditis and 1.9% poorly differentiated carcinoma. Benign nodules (Bethesda Class II) exhibited a 9.7% malignancy risk; Class III exhibited a 20% malignancy risk; Class IV exhibited a 18.4% malignancy; Class V exhibited a 16% malignancy risk and Class VI exhibited a 100% malignancy risk. Overall histologic data from the aspirated nodules showed a risk of malignancy of 17.8%.

      Conclusion: Our study seems to suggest that in the presence of oncocytic cells there may be a tendency for a higher than expected malignancy rate. Clinical factors appear to be insufficient to base our management decisions with confidence and molecular markers are still under development. Therefore, surgery may stand as the favored option in this setting.

      Research Pages: 1 - 19

      Thyroid nodules: Cytopathological correlations with the update Bethesda system 2017: our experience and a systematic review.

      Taha MM Hassan, Ahmed M.S. Hegazy, Mohammed M. Mosaed, , Nashwa Alzahrani, Abdalla Taher El-Enizi

      Thyroid nodules (TNs) consider alarming problem among women. Although benign nodules far outnumber cancerous one. The risk of malignancy can be evaluated preoperatively using fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) under ultrasonographic guidance is widely used. The Bethesda system for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (TBSRTC) was worldwide accepted as standardized approach for cytological interpretation of these nodules. The purposes of this study are to apply and determine the risk of malignancy (ROM) of each standard cytological category of TBSRTC correlating with histopathological examinations and other publications. This study was performed on 1500 patients were complaining of thyroid nodules. All patients underwent for FNAC under ultrasonographic guidance. The obtained materials were diagnosed and categorized according the standard cytological categories of TBSRTC 2017. The cases which were diagnosed C4, C5, and C6 underwent to thyroid surgery, then all the taken specimens were examined and evaluated microscopically. The ROM in FNAC and a correlation with the histopathological findings were done.

      Conclusion: cytological interpretation of thyroid nodules applying the standard categories of the Bethesda system can minimize the risk of over surgical treatment and yielding more accurate approach for patient's management.

      Volume 12, Issue 4 (2021)

        Case Series Pages: 1 - 5

        Epidemiological and Cytological Profile of Breast Masses with Satellite Lymphadenopathies: About 422 Cases, Collected in Dakar, Senegal

        Fabrice Senghor, Ibou Thiam, Abdou Magib Gaye, Lemrabott Boubacar Ould Baba Tall and Cherif Mohamed Moustapha Dial

        Introduction: Breast masses with satellite adenopathies are a frequent reason for consultation, of various etiologies. Breast cancer, a major public health problem, remains the main obsession of the practitioner.

        Goals: Describe the epidemiological and morphological profile of mammary masses with satellite adenopathies, and determine the prevalence of breast cancer in this context.

        Patients and Methodology: A retrospective, descriptive, and analytical study from January 2012 to December 2016, based on the reports of patients who presented a breast mass associated with lymphadenopathy and cytological examination, in the laboratory of Pathological anatomy and cytology of Aristide le Dantec University Hospital.

        Results: We counted 422 patients, of whom 98.8% were women. The study population was predominantly urban (53.6%). The average age was 38.5 years with extremes of 10 and 81 years. The consultation period was an average of 17 months. Lesions in favor of breast carcinoma accounted for 55.7% of cases and lymph node involvement was observed in 46.7% of cases. Inflammatory benign lesions (10.9%) were dominated by mastitis (42 cases or 9.9%). Noninflammatory benign lesions (29.1%) were predominantly epithelial and epithelio-conjunctive hyperplasias (20.8%)

        Conclusion: Breast carcinoma constituted more than half of the breast mass with satellite lymphadenopathy causes, in the laboratory of Pathological Anatomy and Cytology of the University Hospital Aristide le Dantec.

         

        Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

        Palmoplantar Keratoderma: Rare Case Report

        Dr. Ayushi Bansal, Dr. Hemlata Munde*, Dr. Munish Gupta and Dr. Santosh Munde

        Palmoplantar keratodermas(PPK) are group of cornification disorders characterized by epidermal hyperkeratotic lesions involving the palms and soles. A 50years old healthy male, presented with history of multiple punctate hyperkeratotic papules since last 5 years.

        Keywords: Palmoplantar keratoderma Punctate Hyperkeratotic papules

        Abbreviations: PPK: Palmoplantar keratodermas PUVA: Psoralen plus Ultraviolet A PPPK: Punctate Palmoplantar keratodermas USG: Ultrasound Sonography • VRDL: Venereal Disease Research Laboratory Test ELISA: Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Human Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells Co-Express Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Isoforms Aldh1A1 & Aldh1A3

        Laura Sophie Rihani, Friederike Liesche-Starnecker and Jürgen Schlegel

        Satellite cells (SC) constitute the stem cell population of skeletal muscle and conduct myogenic growth and differentiation. Recently, aldehyde dehydrogenase
        1 (ALDH1) has been identified as a novel myogenic factor in experimental models of SCs. ALDH1 constitutes a subfamily of the ALDH enzyme super family.
        The enzymatic functions of ALDH1 isoforms include both protection against oxidative stress products and regulation of differentiation as pacemaker enzyme in
        retinoic acid signaling. Although ALDH enzymatic activity has been demonstrated in SCs it is not clear which isoforms are important in human skeletal muscle.
        Here, we show that ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 are expressed in human SCs. Using antibodies directed against ALDH1 and its isoforms ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3,
        respectively, we demonstrate immunohistochemical staining in peri-fascicular position matching the localization of SCs. Consistently, co-immunofluorescence
        reveals ALDH1 expression in CD56 positive stem cells and co-localization of the isoforms ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3 in Pax7 positive SCs. Quantitative analysis of
        immunohistochemical staining showed no significant differences in the distribution of ALDH1 positive SCs in the skeletal muscle groups pectoralis, diaphragm and
        psoas that have been investigated in the present study. In conclusion, human SCs co-express the ALDH1 isoforms ALDH1A1 and ALDH1A3.

        Mini Review Pages: 1 - 1

        Cell as a Living System

        Martin Vlcek

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        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Comparison of Programmed Death Ligand 1 (Pd-L1) Immunostaining for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma (PDAC) between Paired Cytological and Surgical Samples

        Michael Magguilli, Donna Russell, Qi Yang, Loralee McMahon and Zhongren Zhou*

        Introduction: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a poor prognosis with surgery or chemotherapy. PD-L1 immunotherapy has been successful for treating lung and other cancers with PD-L1 expression. However, in many unresectable PDAC cases, cytological samples are the only available tissues for PD-L1 testing. The aim of this study is to retrospectively compare the expression of PD-L1 using cytological and surgical samples.

        Materials and Methods: Paired formalin-fixed cell blocks and surgical samples from the same patients with confirmed diagnoses of PDAC (n=28) were sectioned for PD-L1 immunohistochemistry. Using tumor proportion score (TPS) and combined positive score (CPS) to evaluate paired cell blocks and surgical samples, we counted and analyzed the data. 

        Results: With TPS, the PD-L1 was expressed in 9/28 (32%) of PDAC surgical samples and in 9/28 (32%) of paired cytological samples. Overall, the PD-L1 expression had a correlation of 26/28 (93%). With CPS, the PD-L1 was expressed in 20/28 (71%) of PDAC surgical samples and in 16/28 (57%) of paired cytological samples. The PD-L1 expression had a correlation of 20/28 (71%) and a discrepancy of 8/28 (29%). The PD-L1 expression was significantly higher in moderately-differentiated PDAC than in well-differentiated with TPS.

        Conclusions: Cytological samples are useful for evaluating PD-L1 expression with TPS because the concordant rate was 93%. With CPS, cytological samples are limited due to the scant inflammatory cells with the concordant rate of 71%. Extensive sampling of the pancreatic tumor may improve the detection of immune cells expressing PD-L1 in cytological samples. With TPS, PD-L1 expression was significantly higher in moderate-differentiation of PDAC than in poor- and well-differentiation.

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