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Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

Articles in press and Articles in process

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Butterfly Diversity and Distribution of Southwestern Ethiopia. In Case of Chebera Churchura National Park and Its Surrounding Farmlands

    Gebreegziabher Hailay* and Emana Getu

    DOI: 10.37421/2332-2543.2023.11.462

    A total of 79 butterfly species from 3801 individuals were recorded. The riverine forest had the greatest diversity, with 54 species and 1611 individuals, and the least, the mosaic habitat, with 23 species and 659 individuals. The Shannon and Simpson indices were highest in the riverine, followed by wooded grassland and the mosaic habitat. There was a significant difference across land use types with Kruskal-Wallis of H=19.89 and p=1.274 E-05. The butterfly diversity varied with the month of sampling, such that January had the highest, followed by February, and the lowest was recorded in June. In riverine forest, the highest was recorded in January and the least was in June, while wooded grassland had the highest in January and the least was in March. In the mosaic habitat, January was the most abundant month, and May was the least abundant. Jaccard’s index of similarity indicated the lowest similarity was found between the riverine forest and the mosaic habitat. The number of butterflies showed a strong positive correlation with minimum and maximum temperatures and a strong negative correlation with average precipitation. The recent study found an important habitat for butterflies, but additional research is needed to find new species.

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

      The Current Conservation Efforts and Future Prospects for the Endangered Nubian Ibex (Capra nubiana ibex) in Sudan

      Lubna Mohammed Abdallah Hassan*, Mutasim E. Abdallah, Latiefa Eltigany and Nasir Brema

      DOI: 10.37421/2332-2543.2023.11.502

      A comprehensive action plan for the conservation of the endangered species, the Nubian ibex in Sudan, can be developed by gaining a thorough understanding of their current status, conservation strategy and relevant laws and regulations, as well as raising awareness about the importance of protecting endangered species. The Nubian ibex is listed as an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, highlighting the need for further research on population conservation efforts due to insufficient population data. To address this knowledge gap, a questionnaire was conducted with various stakeholders, including police officers, researchers and lecturers, representing a diverse range of organizations and universities. The findings revealed that hunting is the primary factor contributing to endangerment. Mammals account for 80% of endangered species, while reptiles comprise less than one-tenth. Research centers are recognized as the main governing body and 85% of participants are concerned about the declining population. Hunting accounted for less than half of the threats to the ibex population in Sudan, while habitat loss made up a quarter. Mining, climate change, human activity and agriculture were also identified as risks. However, there were no plans, strategies, procedures, or measures in place to conserve the Nubian ibex. There were also no initiatives to preserve its biodiversity and awareness about endangered species was lacking. Although participants believed that laws were effective in protecting the ibex, no licenses were issued for its conservation and annual surveys were not conducted. Additionally, there were no recorded instances of Mukhalfat related to the Nubian ibex. In light of these findings, we propose various conservation measures to address these challenges. These measures include the implementation of laws and regulations, conducting annual surveys to monitor population trends, protecting habitats, establishing breeding and releasing programs, launching awareness campaigns, undertaking rehabilitation efforts, enhancing research efforts and developing comprehensive conservation strategies. Additionally, it is crucial to foster cooperation among wildlife institutes to ensure the effective implementation of these conservation measures.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

        Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activity Comparison in Various Plant Parts of Justicia adhatoda L.

        Ishwar Prakash Sharma*, Kardak Basar and Chandra Kanta

        DOI: 10.37421/2332-2543.2023.11.483

        There are many medicinal plants that have various medicinal properties in their different parts. Medicinal plants are the major backbone of pharmaceutical industries. In this article, we compare the antioxidant properties of various plant parts (root, stem, leaf, flower, and bark) of the most important medicinal plant, Justicia adhatoda L. various plant parts showed a good amount of antioxidant properties. These results enhance the medicinal properties of this plant due to the presence of the good content of antioxidants; among all the plant parts leaves and flowers showed maximum natural antioxidants, hence the study could be saying that this plant has good efficacy of antioxidants.

          Research Pages: 1 - 6

          Characterization of Parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.) Compost for Plant Nutrient Contents at Ginir District of Bale Zone, South-Eastern Ethiopia

          Tesfaye Ketema Defar*, Mulugeta Eshetu Diriba, Girma Getachew Gemechu and Regassa Gosa Telila

          DOI: 10.37421/2332-2543.2024.12.522

          The experiment was conducted in the Ginir District of the Bale Zone in the Oromia Region in the southeast of Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the major plant nutrients in compost made from Parthenium combined with wheat residue and farmyard manure, as well as its overall quality and nutrient contents. To fulfill the designated purpose, the Parthenium plants were gathered before flowering and chopped into smaller pieces. Based on this, it can be concluded that the preparation of the compost and the material sources play a significant role, especially since different materials and methods were used throughout the study. The Parthenium compost was thus made separately for each of the following three categories or treatments: Parthenium biomass plus farm yard manure, Parthenium biomass plus crop residue and Parthenium biomass combination with both farm yard manure and crop residue. After being prepared and harvested, the Parthenium compost was subjected to a final laboratory analysis. Using conventional laboratory techniques, the main chemical properties, including pH, EC, OC, TN, available P, CEC, exchangeable bases (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and micronutrients (Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn), were measured. The obtained results for the nutrient content characterizations were: pH; Ec; OM; TN; CEC; 7.1 to 7.27; 0.000058 to 0.000062 ds/m; 35.2 to 37.8%; 1.83% to 1.98% and 34.8 to 53.2 cmol+/ kg, respectively. Exchangeable bases exhibit a similar trend for the major essential plant nutrients. The results indicated that the compost had a high concentration of plant nutrients and varied significantly between the three Parthenium compost preparation methods. Parthenium compost, therefore, offers multiple benefits, including high nutrient contents, weed control capabilities and generally environmentally sound uses of organic fertilizers.

            Open Access Pages: 1 - 1

            Integration of agricultural education and biodiversity: Introducing synecoculture into elementary school in Taiwan

            Kai-Yuan Lin

            As food protection incidents manifest continually, human beings placed extra problem on meals, therefore ???Food and agricultural schooling??? grow to be a trend. Food and agricultural schooling are divided into parts, one is meals schooling that mixes nutrition, protection and culture, the opposite is agriculture schooling that specializes in meals source, farming and environment. Currently, instructors train the nutrition, biology that is written at the textbook, however with out the realistic and in-area experience, the agriculture schooling is inadequate in Taiwan. Our undertaking combines agriculture schooling and synecoculture, in collaboration with Sony CSL in Japan. Synecoculture is an open-area crop cultivation method, which removes using tillage, fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide and absolutely is based at the productiveness primarily based totally on biodiversity. There are 3 motives to instigate synecoculture to the primary school:(1) Less field labor which makes easier approach for elementary school students to experience and understand, (2) It includes both knowledge and practice: Learning on biodiversity and the training of farming skills and (3) Elementary school is the primary education that makes an important influence in one???s life. Our primary object of introducing this system into elementary school is to raise future educators and students??? confidence and familiarity to farming. Inspire their concern about biodiversity, and rethinking the origin of food. The first step is to build teachers??? know-how and skill of synecoculture. After instructors might come to be greater acquainted with discipline operating and collect farming skill, the following step is to realise and fuse the agriculture training into the guides and paintings with students.

            This studies proposes approach and layout of biodiversity understanding constructing in agricultural training, grade by grade overcoming the issue and to layout a sequence of guides for college students in a sensible way.In addition, inside the agriculture training, the facts on plant boom can be gathered and analyzed with statistical tools.

            Agricultural biodiversity is critical to human survival and the sustainability of agroecosystems. Yet, many college graduates have best constrained competence on this field. To cope with this understanding gap, Bioversity International works with agricultural universities and networks to combine agricultural biodiversity into curricula and fortify institutions’ ability to train the subject.

            Continued genetic erosion and demanding situations of feeding the arena with the aid of using 2050 has led scientists and coverage makers to step up their paintings on agricultural biodiversity. For example, FAO’s Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture video display units the reputation of the arena’s plant, animal and woodland genetic assets and informs coverage makers on such trends. Agricultural biodiversity is a thematic programme below the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).  Knowledge of agricultural biodiversity is important to knowledge the influences of, and variation to, weather alternate and variability. Food structures processes that use agricultural biodiversity to enhance vitamins and fitness is gaining ground. Such new studies findings and guidelines want to discover their manner into the schooling system.

              Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

              Shailendra Kumar Yadav, Babu Ram Lamichhane, Naresh Subedi and Hari Bhadra Acharya

              We used camera opportunistic records of Hyaena in camera traps set for tigers to understand distribution and density of Striped Hyena Hyaena hyaenain Bardia National Park (BNP) and Banke National Park (BaNP) during 2013 and 2016/2017. This paper illustrate about temporal & spatial distribution as well as human hyena conflict status in western lowland of Nepal. Direct observation and camera traps data were used to collect information on human-hyena conflict and its distribution respectively. We also compare the number of individuals with encounter rate in two national parks during the period. Fifteen days of camera trapping was done with a sampling effort of 5,550 trap nights during winter of 2013 and 2016/2017. Camera traps yielded a total of 695 Hyena photographs of 17 individuals from thirty seven independent detections within an effective trapping area of 148.45 km2.Solitary striped hyenas co-exist in Bardia and Banke National Park with sympatric carnivores like tiger Panthera tigris , leopard Panthera pardus , Asiatic Wild dogs Cuonalpinus and Jackal Canis aureus . We also documented deaths of ten striped hyenas in WestenTerai between 2009 and 2018 due to Retaliatory Killings (3), Poaching (2), Road accidents (2), Natural Death (2) and Poisoning (1). Livestock depredation by striped hyena was the major reasons for the retaliatory killings. The conservation outreach programs should be formulated to conserve the habitat and maintain the prey population of the striped hyena which would be helpful for long term conservation of the striped hyena in Nepal. The study revealed that camera based capture-recapture method is an effective tool for assessing the population size and its distribution of Striped Hyena in BNP and BaNP.
              Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

              Maria A. Sepulveda G*, Adriana P. Rojas R, Néstor I. Monroy O, Liliana Serrano B and Karen A. López R

              Keratitis also called corneal ulcer is inflammation of the cornea, an ocular disorder that can lead to severe visual impairment and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to avoid complex sequelae that can range from corneal opacity to corneal scarring, perforation, endophthalmitis and loss of the eye. Ulcer types are classified into superficial ulcer, deep ulcer, neurotrophic ulcer, perforating ulcer and corneal erosion. The objective of this work is to describe the clinical case of an adult female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) that was under human care belonging to the company Delphinus, which presented symptoms such as blepharitis and closed eye, characteristic symptoms of keratitis, confirming the diagnosis in this specimen was a challenge due to the retraction of the eye, however, The treatments used for this condition ranged from antibiotics and anti-inflammatories to alternative procedures such as the use of plasma rich in growth factors and ophthalmic ozone. With the latter, recovery of the integrity of the corneal epithelium and a minimal formation of scar tissue was observed; the definitive diagnosis was confirmed once the specimen opened its eye.

                Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

                Ishwar Prakash Sharma*

                The genus Ceropegia L. is a highly diversified genus of family Apocynaceae whose most of the species are facing threats. The species Ceropegia wallichii Wight is categorized under Data Deficient (DD) which is found between 2500 to 2900 m altitudes since till date according to available literature while this article first time mentioned its elevation in 1735 m altitude. Hence, in this scenario its new elevation should be change as 1700 to 2900 m. Owing to its poor abundance of sheets in Indian herbaria, this species also needs to be protected.

                  Research Article Pages: 1 - 14

                  The Effects of Tree Species on Herbaceous Vegetation Composition, Distribution and Diversity in Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia

                  Tolera Fikadu

                  DOI: 10.37421/2332-2543.2022.10.457

                  Background: The fast growing natures of conifer tree species and favorable economic returns from these trees have encouraged the conversion of natural grasslands in open forests into tree plantations in ethiopia. The dominant tree species used for this purpose were Podocarpus falcatus, Juniperus procera and Cupressus lusitanica. These tree species plantation is spreading rapidly in mountain, specially, open forest areas of eastern oromia. Therefore, in the current study, we evaluated the effects of these tree species on herbaceous plant composition, distribution and diversity. Data was collected under and outside canopies of each tree in four directions. Four quadrants for each canopy type used. Twenty trees selected from each tree species. Totally, 60 trees were selected purposively. Four quadrants for each canopy type used under and outside canopy of the tree.

                  Results: The present results showed that tree species had negatively effect on herbaceous plant distribution, composition and diversity where the whole parameters were significantly higher outside canopy than inside canopy cover. The values of IVI reported that the outside canopy was dominated by hyparrhenia rufa while under canopy cover was dominated by oplismenus compositus. Also the value of IVI showed that some of the herbaceous species were found in both canopy types while a few of them were found only inside or outside canopy of the tree species.

                  Conclusion: Our current study suggests that Podocarpus falcatus, Juniperus procera and Cupressus lusitanica tree species has negative effects on the grassland found in open forest. Therefore, management and monitoring of herbaceous vegetation of grassland found in open forest is crucial in keramile open forest, Goro-Gutu district, eastern ethiopia and open woodlands receiving similar practice.

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Citations: 624

Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species received 624 citations as per Google Scholar report

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