Background: The loss of function in TP53 gene is an early event of carcinogenesis and is now considered as a full etiological factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The most common polymorphism in this gene that is associated to OSCC and has been extensively studied as a potential risk factor for the development of malignancies is the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) encoding either proline or arginine at residue 72. Today, despite the multiplicity of publications and approaches used, the contradiction of the results have not remove the ambiguity of the possible impact of this polymorphism in OSCC. So we aimed this meta-analysis to investigate the distribution of TP53 codon 72 genotypes and alleles in patients with OSCC and healthy matched controls, by using an ethnicity subgroups analysis.
Method: A literature search was conducted to identify studies concerning TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and OSCC risk. Retrieved publications from 2000 to 2014 were classified by ethnicity, according to the sampling collection continent. Allelic frequencies were estimated by using genotypic data and Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and distributions were checked with Chi-2 test. Statistical tests for contrast models of association were performed with Proline allele as reference stratum.
Results: Arg allele distribution was almost similar in both cases and controls for African and Caucasian populations whereas Arg frequency was significantly greater in cases than in controls for Asians (p=0.011). After stratified statistical analyses, we’ve found again a significant association between Arginine allele and OSCC risk in the Asian subgroup (OR=1.31; 95% CI=1.09-1.58; P=0.004).
Conclusion: This current study revealed that allelic distribution of TP53 Arg72Pro polymorphism may depend on ethnicity and latitude, and highlighted that Arginine carrier in Asian populations may be considered to be predisposed to OSCC.