Journal of Forensic Medicine

ISSN: 2472-1026

Open Access

Volume 8, Issue 3 (2023)

Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

Examining Mortality in America: The Science of Forensic Pathology

Henner Hollert*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.203

In the intricate tapestry of life and death, few fields hold the solemn responsibility that forensic pathology does. As we delve into the realm of examining mortality in America, the role of forensic pathology emerges as a crucial element in unraveling the mysteries surrounding untimely deaths. This science, blending medicine, investigation, and meticulous analysis, plays an indispensable role in our justice system and in shedding light on the circumstances surrounding unexpected demises.

Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

Accumulation and Impact of Polystyrene Microplastics on Juvenile Eriocheir sinensis: Unveiling Oxidative Stress Effects in Liver Tissues

Johanna Noomi*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.197

In the realm of marine ecosystems, the pervasiveness of microplastics presents a potential burgeoning global menace to aquatic life forms. This current study sets out to unravel the repercussions of microplastics on the growth, accumulation, and oxidative stress response in the liver of Eriocheir sinensis. To this end, we examined the deposition of fluorescent microplastic particles (with a diameter of 0.5 μm) within the gill, liver, and gut tissues of E. sinensis, which were subjected to a concentration of 40000 μg/L over a period of 7 days. A comprehensive 21-day toxicity assessment showcased a decline in the rate of weight gain, specific growth rate, and hepatosomatic index of E. sinensis with escalating microplastic concentrations (ranging from 0 μg/L to 40000 μg/L). Pertinently, the enzymatic activities of AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and GPT (glutamate pyruvate transaminase) were observed to be lower in crabs exposed to microplastics compared to the control group. Furthermore, GOT (glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase) activity demonstrated an initial surge following exposure to lower microplastic concentrations, followed by a continuous descent as concentrations increased.

Brief Report Pages: 1 - 2

Beyond Ingestion: Adhesion of Microplastics to Aquatic Organisms

Gabriela Kalkov*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.198

The interactions between microplastics and aquatic organisms have predominantly been explored through studies involving various animal species, with dietary ingestion identified as the primary pathway of uptake. Nevertheless, recent investigations have illuminated an additional mode of interaction: bioadhesion between microplastics and biota. This phenomenon has been extensively examined in laboratory settings using aquatic macrophytes, revealing the attachment of microplastics to their biomass. Importantly, field studies have corroborated these findings, demonstrating that microplastic bioadhesion is not confined to specific species or environments. Microplastics have also been observed adhering to microorganisms and becoming ensnared within pervasive biofilms in aquatic habitats. These biofilms, which naturally form on substrates like sediment and rocks, also play a role in augmenting the adhesion of microplastics to other biological surfaces, such as those of plants.

Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

Converging Forces: Exploring the Nexus of Climate Change, Ocean Acidification and Aquatic Toxicology

Mikko Nikinmaa*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.199

The potential interactions between toxic substances and ocean acidification can be approached from two distinct perspectives. Firstly, it is essential to consider how the responses of toxicants might influence ocean acidification by affecting the delicate balance of carbon dioxide. Secondly, we delve into the realm of environmental dynamics, specifically the anticipated shifts in conditions such as temperature, pH, and oxygen levels due to climate change and ocean acidification. Of particular focus is the interaction between these changing environmental factors and the responses of organisms to toxicants, with a special emphasis on fish. Regrettably, a significant gap exists in the current body of research, where toxicological studies have seldom intersected with ecological and physiological investigations that examine how organisms respond to natural variations in temperature, pH, or oxygen levels.

Perspective Pages: 1 - 2

Ecotoxicology of Human Pharmaceuticals: Unraveling the Impact on Aquatic Ecosystems

Karl Weston*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.200

The ubiquity of pharmaceutical compounds in the environment has emerged as a pressing concern in recent years, shedding light on the intricate interplay between human activities, water bodies, and the delicate balance of aquatic ecosystems. The field of ecotoxicology has been tasked with unraveling the far-reaching consequences of these substances, specifically human pharmaceuticals, on the intricate web of life that exists within our waters.

Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

Managing Invasive Sea Lampreys with TFM and Niclosamide Piscicides: Toxicological Insights, Achievements and Future Directions

Michael P. Madan*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.201

The incursion of sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) into the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America during the early 20th century led to the depletion of vital commercial, recreational, and culturally significant fish populations. This devastation severely impacted the economies of communities dependent on fisheries. In response, a robust integrated pest management strategy was employed to curb sea lamprey populations. This approach encompassed the installation of barriers and traps to impede their migration to spawning grounds, coupled with the utilization of piscicides (known as lampricides) including 3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) and niclosamide to eliminate larval sea lampreys from their nursery streams. Despite the Great Lakes still housing residual sea lamprey populations, their numbers have been curtailed to less than 10% of the peak levels observed in the mid-1900s, predominantly through the sustained application of lampricides. This initiative has heralded one of the most triumphant invasive species management programs globally. However, there exist significant knowledge gaps concerning the uptake, processing, and toxicological mechanisms of TFM and niclosamide in lampreys and non-target species. In the past decade, substantial progress has been made in elucidating these aspects.

Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

Microplastics′ Impact on European Seabass: Unraveling Neurotoxicity, Oxidative Damage, Energy−Related Changes and Mercury Bioaccumulation

Crestino Carval*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.201

Microplastic pollution has become a global concern, posing significant threats to both the environment and human health. This study delved into the deleterious effects of microplastics and mercury on the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax), a marine fish widely consumed by humans. To investigate this, a short-term (96-hour) laboratory bioassay was conducted, wherein juvenile fish were subjected to varying concentrations of microplastics (0.26 and 0.69 mg/L), mercury (0.010 and 0.016 mg/L), and binary combinations of these substances at identical concentrations. These exposures were administered through test media. The outcomes of the study indicated that microplastics, mercury, and their combinations elicited toxic effects. Isolated exposure to microplastics and mercury led to neurotoxicity, as evidenced by the inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Additionally, there was an observed increase in Lipid Oxidation (LPO) in both brain and muscle tissues, along with altered activities of energy-related enzymes, such as Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH).

Brief Report Pages: 1 - 2

Exploring miRNAs as Emerging Molecular Signatures for Estimating the Temporal Age of Wound Formation: An In-depth Systematic Analysis

Zheng Wang*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.204

Pharmacology and toxicology are two closely related fields that play a crucial role in advancing medical science, ensuring the safety of drugs and chemicals, and understanding the intricate interactions between substances and living organisms. These disciplines delve into the complex relationship between the potential benefits of therapeutic agents and the potential risks they may pose to human health and the environment. In this article, we explore the fundamentals of pharmacology and toxicology, their significance, and their impact on modern healthcare and society.

Opinion Pages: 1 - 2

Revolutionizing Pap−Smear Analysis: Automated Segmentation of Nucleus, Cytoplasm and Background Using a Trainable Pixel−Level Classifier

Volody Lushch*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.205

Aquatic ecosystems play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of life on Earth, providing habitat, food, and various resources for a diverse range of organisms. However, these ecosystems are facing unprecedented challenges due to human activities and environmental changes. One significant consequence of these changes is the emergence of oxidative stress in aquatic animals, which can have profound impacts on their health, survival, and overall ecosystem stability.

Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

Stature Estimation through Sternum Length: A Reliable Approach for Forensic Identification Using Skeletal Remains in Western India

Shaochen Liang*

DOI: 10.37421/2472-1026.2023.8.206

Stature estimation holds significant importance within forensic osteology for identifying individuals from skeletal and dismembered remains. Forensic anthropologists face an evolving challenge in estimating stature due to secular changes in height trends, variations in long bone proportions, and global population migrations. Particularly in cases of mass disasters, establishing the identity of the deceased proves daunting for forensic experts. This research delved into examining the connection between stature and sternum length. Conducted at a prominent medical college and referral hospital in Western India, the study obtained data from 196 subjects with ethical clearance from the institutional clinical committee. The analysis revealed an ascending trend in the Area Under the Curve (AUC) as we move from manubrium to total sternal length via mesosternum. Likewise, metrics such as McFadden's Rho-square, Cox and Snell R-square, and Naglekerke's R-square exhibited upward patterns. The study's findings underscore the reliable predictive capacity of sternum length for stature among the adult population in Western India. This metric offers a valuable alternative for stature estimation in practical forensic scenarios involving skeletal remains, especially when traditional predictors like limb long bones are unavailable.

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