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Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

ISSN: 2155-6113

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 7 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

    Ending HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Bangladesh by 2030

    abc

    DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.812

    The international community has committed to ending HIV/AIDS epidemics throughout the world by 2030. We address whether this optimistic
    target for HIV/AIDS is achievable in Bangladesh. The study provides a roadmap for what is required in Bangladesh to end AIDS within the next 10
    years (by 2030), which remains aligned with the Sustainable Development Goal 3.3. For ending AIDS in Bangladesh rapid scaling up of prevention
    and treatment coverage would be required. We have shown that the Fast-Track approach is predicated on a rapid scale-up and maintenance of
    focused, effective prevention and treatment services over the next 10 years i.e., by 2030.

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 4

    Echocardiographic Findings and Follow-Up in Two HIVAssociated Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Cases

    Mircea Bajdechi, Adriana Gurghean, Georgiana-Elena Stoian, Dragos-Cosmin Zaharia, Tudor Constantinescu, Cristina-Elena Micu, Roxana Cernat, Irina Magdanela Dumitru and Sorin Rugina

    DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.814

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with HIV infection is a separate entity. The prevalence is up to one thousand times higher than in
    general population. The mechanisms are multifactorial and incompletely elucidated. Echocardiography can suggest the diagnosis, but the gold
    standard method of diagnosing pulmonary arterial hypertension is right heart catheterization. We present clinical and paraclinical findings (NYHA,
    6MWD, sPAP, RVGLS) and follow-up in two patients living with HIV, who are included in the Romanian National Program of Pulmonary Arterial
    Hypertension. In patients, the possible thromboembolism or left heart dysfunction were excluded. Each case has its own particularities, but both
    of them responded to treatment with sildenafil and improved clinical and paraclinical parameters. Mortality is high, usually due to right heart
    failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension is considered an independent predictor of death in HIV-infected patients. Co-management with both a
    Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) expert and a HIV expert is recommended.

    Research Pages: 1 - 6

    Performance Comparison of Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load Assay and Roche Taqman and Abbott M2000 RT in Bamako, Mali

    Bourahima Kone, Drissa Goita, Oumar Dolo, Daouda Traore, Dramane Sogoba, Amadou Somboro, Moumine Sanogo, Anou M Somboro, Nadie Coulibaly, Alou Sanogo, Zoumana Diarra, Madou Traore, Almoustapha I Maiga, Bocar Baya, Yeya Dit Sadio Sarro, Bassirou Diarra, Amadou Kone, Dramane Diallo, Djeneba Dabitao, Jane L. Holl, Michael Belson, Sounkalo Dao, Robert L. Murphy, Mahamadou Diakite, Souleymane Diallo, Seydou Doumbia and Mamoudou Maiga

    DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.815

    Background: Routine monitoring of HIV-1 Viral Load (VL) is important in patients on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) management. Access to HIV VL remains a challenge in resource-limited settings, especially in rural areas. Universal access to VL requires more simplified and less restrictive alternatives to current conventional VL methods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the new rapid (2-hour turnaround time) Xpert HIV-1VL technique compared to Roche TaqMan and Abbott RT m2000 for HIV-1 RNA quantification in HIV- infected patients.

    Study design: We conducted a cross-sectional study in patients seen for routine VL monitoring between August and November 2018 in a HIV care site in Bamako. The performance of the Xpert HIV-1 VL assay was evaluated against the Roche TaqMan assay and Abbott m2000 RT assay. Performance, utility and reliability/reproducibility were verified using accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, Diagnostic Odds Ratio (DOR), Kappa coefficient, Pearson correlation coefficient, and Bland-Altman analysis.

    Results: The Xpert assay compared well with the two current referral assays (Roche TaqMan and Abbott m2000 RT assays). Compared to Roche TaqMan assay the sensitivity was 93.10%, specificity (97.01%) and accuracy (95.20%), the correlation coefficient of Pearson (r) was 0.98 (p <0.01). Bland-Altman anal d a mean difference of 0.18 log10 cp/mL; (Standard Deviation) SD=0.33. Compared to the Abbott m2000 RT, the sensitivity, the specificity and the accuracy were respectively 93.44%; 92% and 92.65%. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay showed a good correlation with a correlation coefficient of Pearson, r=0.99 (p <0.001). The overall mean difference in the HIV-1 VL values obtained by Xpert HIV-1 VL and Abbott m2000 RT assays was 0.08 log10 cp/mL; SD=0.30.

    Conclusion: Xpert HIV-1 VL showed a good performance compared to Roche TaqMan and Abbott m2000 RT. With the rapid test results (less than 2 h) and ease of testing individual specimens, the Xpert HIV-1 VL assay could be an effective alternative for HIV VL monitoring in resource-limited settings.

    Research Pages: 1 - 8

    Male Partner Involvement in Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS at Primary Health Care Unit of Adama Districts, Central Ethiopia

    Mesfine Tafa Segni, Yosef Gudeta, Zawde Birhanu and Hirpo Teno

    DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.816

    Background: Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission (PMTCT) of Human Immune deficiency Virus (HIV) is extremely important as majority of children with HIV become infected through mother to child transmission. The involvement of male in PMTCT has vital importance in reducing HIV infections from mother to child.

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the level of male partner involvement in PMTCT HIV/AIDS in Primary Health Care of Adama district East Shawa, Oromia.

    Methods: Institutional based cross sectional study design was conducted among 752 pregnant women attending antenatal care. Respondents were consecutively approached until sample size required was achieved and the study involved both quantitative and qualitative study design. The data were analysed using SPSS for window version 21 and odds ratio was computed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions to assess association between dependent and independent variable.

    Results: Only 61% of male partner accompany their wives to antenatal clinic or prevention of mother to child transmission services. The independent predictors of male partner involvement were age of husband (AOR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 11.3), occupation of husband (AOR=0.05, 95% CI: 0.004,0.64), family income (AOR: 0.04, 95% CI: 0.01,0.10), HIV test result disclosure and suggestion (AOR=3.9, 95% CI=1.7,9.0), ever had partner visited antenatal care (AOR=10.3, 95% CI=4.5,23.5) and reminding partner (AOR=8.91, 95% CI=4.10,19.35, ).

    Conclusions and recommendations: the level of male involvement was 61%. It is important to develop strategies of tracing mechanism in providing information for couples on PMTCT services in order to increase male involvement in ANC/PMTCT.

    Research Pages: 1 - 6

    Determinants of HIV/AIDS Disclosure in Pediatrics Age from 5-14 Years on ART in South Wollo, North East Ethiopia, 2019: Un-matched Case-Control study

    Wolde Melese Ayele, Seid Fentaw Getahun and Mastewal Arefayne Temesgen

    DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.817

    Background: One of the most difficult issues that families with HIV-infected children and their medical providers face is disclosing their HIV status to their child. Despite emerging evidence of the benefits of disclosure, its prevalence is low, and the predictors for non-disclosure remain clinical dilemma. Therefore, this study aimed to explore determinants of HIV status disclosure among 5-14 years age children in Dessie town, Ethiopia.

    Methods: Health facility based unmatched case-control study was conducted from January 1 to February 30, 2019. Interviewer based questionnaire was used for data collection from a total of 387 children on ART /care givers pairs. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out using SPSS version 23 software.

    Result: A total of 374 children/caregiver pairs were included in the study, making 96.6% 96.6% of response rate. In multivariable logistic regression model, presence of organizational support (AOR=27.77, 95% CI: 12.472, 61.819), child age of 10 to 14 years (AOR= 3, 95% CI; 1.423, 6.536) and conducting of discussion with health care providers (AOR=17.65, 95% CI; 6.611, 47.002) predicted children’s HIV disclosure status.

    Conclusion: Presence of organizational support, child age of 10 to 14 years, and care givers discussion with health care providers were statistically significantly associated with HIV status disclosure. Further qualitative and community based research may reveal more on these and other factors; organizational support strategy may address some of these determinants.

    Volume 11, Issue 8 (2020)

      Editorial Note Pages: 1 - 1

      Editorial Note: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research Reports

      Wen Guo

      DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.819

      Without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success have no meaning. It is our pleasure to announce that from last six month, all issues of volume 11 were published online on time and the print issues were also brought out and dispatched within 20-30 days of publishing the issue online.  

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 4

      Islamic preventive ways against AIDS

      Hazim Abdul Rahman Alhiti

      DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.818

      Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a sexually transmitted disease, caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1, affects CD4+ T cells. Illegal sex is the main cause of AIDS. This review demonstrates Islamic preventive ways against AIDS. Islam encourages safe sex in different methods, some of them clearly mentioned in Quran and Hadith, the remaining methods indirectly established by Islamic authorities from Sources of Islamic legislation. Islam has effective and confirmed preventive measures against AIDS.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a sexually transmitted disease, caused by human immunodeficiency virus type 1, affects CD4+ T cells. Illegal sex is the main cause of AIDS. This review demonstrates Islamic preventive ways against AIDS. Islam encourages safe sex in different methods, some of them clearly mentioned in Quran and Hadith, the remaining methods indirectly established by Islamic authorities from Sources of Islamic legislation. Islam has effective and confirmed preventive measures against AIDS.

      Volume 11, Issue 10 (2020)

        Research Pages: 1 - 8

        Health-related quality of life and associated factors among people living with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy at Mettu Karl Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

        Dereje Tsegaye

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.820

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        Abstract Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic is a major public health problem globally. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) now live longer. But they are confronted with many challenges that affect their health-related QOL. Objective: The study aimed at assessing the Health-related quality of life and associated factors among PLWHA on ART at Mettu Karl Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia, 2019. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2019 among 310 randomly selected participants. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. World Health Organization Quality of Life-HIV Brief Version was used to collect the HRQOL data. A logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with health-related quality. Result: Nearly half (46.1%) of the respondents had poor overall HRQOL with mean ±SD 14.60 ± 2.79. Age (AOR= 1.85, 95% CI (1.08, 3.36)), residence (AOR= 1.86, 95% CI (1.15, 2.99)), functional status at initiation of ART (AOR= 1.73, 95% CI (1.04, 2.88)) treatment regimen (AOR= 2.00, 95% CI (1.24, 3.25)) were independent predictors of overall HRQOL. Duration of knowing status was independent predictor of physical domain (AOR=1.78, 95% CI (1.12, 2.83)). Educational status predicted the psychological domain (AOR=0.51, 95%CI (0.30, 0.87)) and spiritual-related domain (AOR=1.90; 95%CI (1.14, 3.16)). Functional status at the start of ART independently predicted the social support domain (AOR=1.82, 95%CI (1.08, 3.05)). Gender (AOR=2.35, 95%CI (1.44, 3.82)) and WHO clinical stage at the start of ART (AOR=2.79, 95%CI (1.34, 5.80)) were independent predictors of environmental domain. Opportunistic infection was independent predictor of spiritual-related domain (AOR=1.91, 95%CI (1.11, 3.27)). Conclusion: This study showed that the overall HRQOL among the study participants was poor. Age, residents, functional status, and ART regimen were determinants of overall HRQOL. Therefore, health providers should use the determinants in assessing HRQOL of PLWHA to facilitate all rounded management of HIV.

        Research Pages: 1 - 7

        IgM Memory B Cell Heterogeneity in Immune Responses to Pneumococcal Vaccination in HIV-positive and Healthy Individuals

        Myroslawa Happea, Bethany Wolf, Ronald Washburna, Heather Hughesa, Wei Jianga and Julie Westerinka

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.821

        Abstract Background: Both normal aging and HIV infection impact B cell functionality and lead to activation of resting B cells, memory cell depletion and altered gene expression. As a result, HIV+ individuals and the elderly fail to demonstrate robust and durable immune responses against pneumococcal polysaccharides. Herein, we assessed altered B cell function in high risk groups by utilizing single cell technology. Methods: HIV-positive individuals with CD4+T cell counts >200 on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) and HIV-negative individuals age groups 21-40 and 50-65 received pneumococcal vaccination. Serum IgG and IgM PPS-specific antibodies were measured pre- and post-immunization using ELISA method. Evaluation of B cells was performed using flow cytometry and single cell RT-PCR. Results: IgM memory B cells are important players in responding to pneumococcal antigens and are present in reduced quantities in HIV+ and aging HIV- individuals. Single cell analysis of IgM memory B cells demonstrated heterogeneity and identified two unique subpopulations. One of the subpopulations represents B cells with higher expression of TACI and BAFF-R and is more likely to dominate in T-cell independent immune responses. IgD+IgM+memory B cells were present in equal proportions in both subpopulations. Conclusion: Pneumococcal vaccine responses in HIV+ and aging HIV- individuals are multifactorial and largely depend on the abundance and phenotypic characteristics of IgM memory B cells.

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Development of the Malay Version of the English HIV Stigma Questionnaire: A Review

        Mohd Shaiful Azlan Bin Kassim1, Nor Asiah Muhammad2, Muhd Hafizuddin Taufik bin Ramli1, Azlinda Azman3, Mohd Hazrin Hasim Hashim1, Hanif bin Bistari1, Fazila Haryati binti Ahmad1, Nik Adilah Binti Shahein1, Muhammad Solihin bin Rezali1, Chan Ying Ying1, Norhafizah Binti Sahril1, Nor` Ain Bt Ab Wahab1, Mohd Hatta Bin Abd Mutalip1 and Noor Ani binti Ahmad1

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.822

        Background: HIV Stigma impeded the screening, treatment and compliance of HIV/AIDS management. Therefore, the data on the burden of HIV stigma is vital. This study aims to examine the cross-cultural translation adaption of the Malay version of HIV Stigma Questionnaires and also examine its validity and reliability.

        Materials and Methods: The standard English version of the HIV Stigma Questionnaire by The Global Stigma and Discrimination Indicator Working Group (GSDIWG) and STRIVE research consortium was undergone a Malay translation via forward-backward methods. Content validity by the expert committees and reliability by preliminary pilot testing was done.

        Results: The content validity was approved by the expert committees with acceptable reliability during the preliminary survey analysis. Internal consistency was acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.76.

        Conclusion: The validation of the Malay version of HIV Stigma questionnaire reveals an excellent cross-cultural adaption, content validation and reliability. This Malay version is open for potential Malaysia’s HIV Stigma studies in the future in parallel with our national strategic planning on HIV to end HIV by 2030.

        Background: HIV Stigma impeded the screening, treatment and compliance of HIV/AIDS management. Therefore, the data on the burden of HIV stigma is vital. This study aims to examine the cross-cultural translation adaption of the Malay version of HIV Stigma Questionnaires and also examine its validity and reliability.

        Materials and Methods: The standard English version of the HIV Stigma Questionnaire by The Global Stigma and Discrimination Indicator Working Group (GSDIWG) and STRIVE research consortium was undergone a Malay translation via forward-backward methods. Content validity by the expert committees and reliability by preliminary pilot testing was done.

        Results: The content validity was approved by the expert committees with acceptable reliability during the preliminary survey analysis. Internal consistency was acceptable with Cronbach’s alpha value was 0.76.

        Conclusion: The validation of the Malay version of HIV Stigma questionnaire reveals an excellent cross-cultural adaption, content validation and reliability. This Malay version is open for potential Malaysia’s HIV Stigma studies in the future in parallel with our national strategic planning on HIV to end HIV by 2030.

        Research Pages: 1 - 6

        Effect of hormonal contraception on disease progression in women living with HIV in Tehran, Iran

        Zahra Bayat Jozani1, Saeed Bayanolhagh1, Tofigh Mobaderi2, Salar Pashangzadeh1, Ahmad Sohrabi2, Reza Adl Tabatabai1, Zohre Rostam Afshar1, Minoo Mohraz4, Minoo Saatian5, Sara Ahsani Nasab and Mahbobeh Haj Abdolbaghi1*

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.823.

        Objective: We conducted the present study to investigate the potential effects of hormonal contraception (HC) on disease progression in women living with HIV (WLWH).

        Methods: In a historical cohort study, the demographic, medical, and reproductive profiles of 50 women registered at a referral HIV clinic, receiving hormonal contraceptives, were selected and compared with a matched control group of female patients who had consistent condom use. Disease progression was monitored for nine months, considering the time of CD4 cell count below 200, the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation, HIV-RNA viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and finally, death.

        Results: The mean HIV-1-RNA plasma viral loads and mean CD4+ T-cell counts differed significantly in time points among patients using hormonal contraceptives, while no significant changes were observed among condom users.
        The mean age was 31.34 (21-51) years, and the meantime from diagnosis was four years. In pap smear result, 16% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 9.2% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), and 1.3% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) were found.
        More regular menstruation cycles were reported during our follow-up among patients using HC (8.7%); we had two unintended pregnancy cases among those patients, only used condoms as contraception.
        HC discontinuation was associated with adverse effects, lack of partners' support in oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. Adequate counseling about how to properly take HC decreases rates of discontinuation.

        Conclusion: HC has shown no significant effects on disease progression among women using antiretroviral drugs.

        Objective: We conducted the present study to investigate the potential effects of hormonal contraception (HC) on disease progression in women living with HIV (WLWH).

        Methods: In a historical cohort study, the demographic, medical, and reproductive profiles of 50 women registered at a referral HIV clinic, receiving hormonal contraceptives, were selected and compared with a matched control group of female patients who had consistent condom use. Disease progression was monitored for nine months, considering the time of CD4 cell count below 200, the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation, HIV-RNA viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and finally, death.

        Results: The mean HIV-1-RNA plasma viral loads and mean CD4+ T-cell counts differed significantly in time points among patients using hormonal contraceptives, while no significant changes were observed among condom users.
        The mean age was 31.34 (21-51) years, and the meantime from diagnosis was four years. In pap smear result, 16% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 9.2% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), and 1.3% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) were found.
        More regular menstruation cycles were reported during our follow-up among patients using HC (8.7%); we had two unintended pregnancy cases among those patients, only used condoms as contraception.
        HC discontinuation was associated with adverse effects, lack of partners' support in oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. Adequate counseling about how to properly take HC decreases rates of discontinuation.

        Conclusion: HC has shown no significant effects on disease progression among women using antiretroviral drugs.

        Objective: We conducted the present study to investigate the potential effects of hormonal contraception (HC) on disease progression in women living with HIV (WLWH).

        Methods: In a historical cohort study, the demographic, medical, and reproductive profiles of 50 women registered at a referral HIV clinic, receiving hormonal contraceptives, were selected and compared with a matched control group of female patients who had consistent condom use. Disease progression was monitored for nine months, considering the time of CD4 cell count below 200, the time of antiretroviral therapy initiation, HIV-RNA viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, and finally, death.

        Results: The mean HIV-1-RNA plasma viral loads and mean CD4+ T-cell counts differed significantly in time points among patients using hormonal contraceptives, while no significant changes were observed among condom users.
        The mean age was 31.34 (21-51) years, and the meantime from diagnosis was four years. In pap smear result, 16% atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 9.2% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LGSIL), and 1.3% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HGSIL) were found.
        More regular menstruation cycles were reported during our follow-up among patients using HC (8.7%); we had two unintended pregnancy cases among those patients, only used condoms as contraception.
        HC discontinuation was associated with adverse effects, lack of partners' support in oral contraceptive pills (OCP) use. Adequate counseling about how to properly take HC decreases rates of discontinuation.

        Conclusion: HC has shown no significant effects on disease progression among women using antiretroviral drugs.

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Tuberculosis and Human Immune Deficiency Virus Co-Infection and Associated Factors at Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, North central Ethiopia, 2020

        Dejen Feleke

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.824

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        Abstract Background: Human immunodeficiency virus and tuberculosis are the leading independent global causes of death among patients with infectious diseases. Additionally, due to the shared immune defense mechanisms, they are the leading cause of co-morbidities globally. However, little information was found regarding the proportion of TB/HIV co-infection in the study area. Thus, this study assesses the proportion and associated factors of TB/HIV co-infection. Objective: To assess the prevalence of Tuberculosis and Human Immune Deficiency Virus Co-Infection and Associated Factors among patients attended TB clinic in five years (May 2015-April 2020) at Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, North central Ethiopia, 2020. Methods: The Institutional based quantitative Retrospective cross sectional study was conducted among the records of 298 Tuberculosis patients registered for treatment in TB-HIV co-infection at Debre Tabor Comprehensive Specialized Hospital, North central Ethiopia, DOT’s clinic from May 2015 to April 2020. Simple random sampling technique will be used to select Record data. Pre-tested Check list was used to collect data. Data was entered in Epi info version 7, and was analyzed using statistical package for social sciences version 20 software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regeration model was fitted to identify factors associated Tuberculosis Treatment Outcome. Odds ratio with 95% confidence interval was computed to determine the level of significance. P-value less than or equal to 0.05 considered as significance. Results: In this Study, the overall prevalence of HIV among TB patient was 53 (17.8 %). In multivariable analysis Urban Residence [AOR (95 % CI)= 2.061(.942,4.510), Age category 18-30years [AOR (95 % CI)= 0.458(0.227,0.925)], and PTB SNPTB category (Types), ((AOR=2.896 [(95% CI:1.069,7.850]), PTB Smear Unknown (AOR= 12.225 [95% CI: 1.896,19.903], EPTB (AOR=11.225 [95% CI:1.138,17.695]) were remained significantly associated with the outcome variable with at 95% CI and P- value of <0.05. Conclusion: Generally this study shows relatively higher TB-HIV co-infection than a number of other studies held in different part of the country even though there was decreasing rate of TB-HIV co-infection in the study area from 44% to 17.8% in the last 4year. The TB-HIV co-infection was significantly associated with type of TB, age; residence and weight requires attention to reduce TB-HIV co-infection.

        Brief Report Pages: 1 - 5

        Macrocytosis associated with lamivudine and emtricitabine use in patients with HIV

        Clemency Nye

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.825

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        Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of lamivudine on the erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume. Methods: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of the mean corpuscular volume in patients prescribed lamivudine, and a comparison group of patients not taking lamivudine or other NRTIs known to affect the MCV, using electronic patient records from a single UK centre. Results: A total of 456 patients whilst on lamivudine were compared to 483 patients not having taken lamivudine. The mean MCV in the lamivudine group was 94.1 (83-100fl)., which was statistically significantly higher than that in patients not taking lamivudine, 91.6 fl, including those taking emtricitabine (p-value < 0.0001). Of patients prescribed lamivudine, 49 (10%) developed a clinically significant macrocytosis, with an odds ratio for macrocytosis of 3.3 compared to patients not taking lamivudine. The effect of lamivudine on MCV was independent of patient age, sex, ethnicity, weight, dose of lamivudine or duration of therapy with lamivudine. A similar, but lesser, effect was seen with emtricitabine. Conclusions: This study suggests that lamivudine causes an increase in the mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and that this is sufficient to cause a clinical macrocytosis in 10% of patients. This is of clinical relevance for practitioners managing patients prescribed lamivudine, in guiding the need for investigating macrocytosis.

        Research Pages: 1 - 8

        Predictors of human death per Road Traffic Injury in Bahir Bar City, North- Western Ethiopia

        Metadel Azeze, Awoke Seyoum Tegegne*

        DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.820

        Background: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in developing countries, affecting the health conditions as well as economic activities in Africa. The objective of current study was assessing the predictors of the number of human death per road traffic injury in Bahir Dar city, North-western part of Ethiopia.

        Materials and Methods: Data collected by traffic police at Bahir Dar city from july2015-june2017 was included under current investigation. A random sample of 172 samples was selected out of 907 registered injuries in the study area. In this study, Zero inflated Quasi- Poisson Regression Model was used for data analysis. Zero Inflated Quasi-Poisson regression models provided more appropriate fit to the number of human death per road traffic injury data included in current investigation.

        Results: Among the potential predictors, Age of vehicles, sex of driver, age of driver, driving after alcohol drinking, driving under fatigue, not give priority, days of weeks, regular services/maintenance of vehicles, yearly technical checking of vehicles, road condition, overloading, over speeding and type of crush were found to be statistically significant predictors for the number of human death per road traffic injury.

        Conclusion: Important factors are identified for the cause of the number of human death per road traffic injury. Awareness should be created for those drivers who are driving after drinking alcohol, for those drivers driving on wet road, for those drivers who are driving over speed, overload and for those drivers driving under fatigue. Awareness should be also given for drivers in order to respect the traffic rules.

        Volume 11, Issue 9 (2020)

          Research Pages: 1 - 7

          Predictors of Non-adherence to Medication and Time to default from treatment on HIV infected Patients under HAART; a comparison of joint and separate models

          Koyachew Bitew Abebe and Awoke Seyoum Tegegne

          DOI: 10.37421/jar.2020.11.818

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          Background: East and Southern Africa is the hardest regions hit by the HIV as compared to countries in other parts of the world. Ethiopia is one of the Sub-Saharan Africa with the highest number of people living with HIV. Amhara region is one of the regions in the country in which many people are under medication. The main objective of this research was to identify significant predictors of non-adherence to medication and time to default from treatment for HIV infected patients under HAART.

          Methods: A retrospective secondary data were obtained from a random sample of 220 HIV patients under HAART. Separate and joint modeling approaches were conducted in data analysis. Joint modeling was conducted for analysis of non-adherence to medication and the time to default from treatment. In the joint model, a GLMM and Cox PH sub-models were fit together for non-adherence to medication and time to default from treatment.

          Results: The significant predictors in current investigation were length of observation time/ visiting time [AOR= 0.866, p-value = 0.0455], female patients [AOR= 0.219,  p-value = 0.0221], patients disclosed the disease[AOR=0.353, p-value=0.0006], patients who got social support[AOR= 0.252, p-value = 0.0026], patients living with partner [AOR= 0.188, p-value= 0.029], patients with owner of cell phone[AOR= 0.272, p-value= 0.0353], urban HIV patients [AOR= 0.238, p-value= 0.0112), patients with at working functional status[AOR=0.234, p-value = 0.0086], patients with normal BMI[AOR=0.921, p-value = 0.0003], patients with high CD4 cell count[AOR=0.4106, p-value = 0.0025]. On the other hand, male patients, patients who had social violence, those of who had mentally depressed HIV patients, rural patients and those who had additional disease were positively associated with non-adherence to medications and became defaulters from treatment. In current investigation, the joint modeling approach was more adequate as compared to separate model.

          Conclusions: Some groups of HIV patients were non-adherent to medication and defaulted from treatment, therefore, such patients need high intervention to be adherent for the prescribed medication and live long in the treatment.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Past Conference Editorial of STD-HIV AIDS-2020

          Jackeline Clemena - Aborde

          DOI: 3

          Conference Series LLC Ltd hosted the “8 th Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs 2020 with the theme, “Honoring Community Engagement through Awareness, Prevention and Care during COVID-19”, which was a great success. Eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions and organizations addressed the gathering with their resplendent presence. We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference. STD-HIV AIDS-2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Infectious Diseases. STD-HIVAIDS-2020 Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference. Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “STD-HIV AIDS Congress”. �?� Clemena-Aborde J, Amosup Seamen’s Hospital, Philippines Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate STD-HIV AIDS-2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs & Co-Chairs and also the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC Ltd thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of HIV AIDS

          Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “9 th Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs 2020, which will be held during May 10-11, 2021, at Rome, Italy. We cordially welcome all the eminent researchers, Training Institutes, Young researchers, Data Management Companies, Hospital General Counsel, Legal Nurse Consultants, Manufacturing Medical Devices Companies, students and delegates to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of infectious diseases with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices. Bookmark your dates for “STD-HIV AIDS-2021, Rome” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 2

          Characterizing strategies to optimize Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) uptake and retention among key populations (men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW)) in Cameroon

          Mfochive Njindam Iliassou

          DOI: 12

          Background: In Cameroon, key populations (KP) have consistently been shown to be disproportionately affected by HIV and the rate of new infection is significantly high among them. In June 2019, Cameroon launched PrEP implementation through community-based organizations (CBO) for KP. Method: Since June 28th, 2019, five CBOs in Yaoundé and Douala have been offering daily oral PrEP to KP. Peer-leads monitor clients on PrEP with follow-up done at first visit, one month and every three months thereafter. PrEP uptake and retention were assessed at 3 and 6 months. Throughout implementation, qualitative data were collected to inform strategies to improve uptake, retention and mitigate challenges

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 10 - 10

          Impact of covid-19 on the lives of people living with HIV in Uganda

          Sekatuka Abubaker

          DOI: 123

          COVID-19 is a disease that is caused by a corona virus known as SARS CoV2.Its effects have been paramount world all over and more so among People living with HIV in developing countries. In Uganda, the institution of a lockdown on the directives of the president in abid to control community transmission of the virus exacerbated these effects upon the lives of people living with HIV. This meant that businesses were to be closed and majority was left jobless; food scarcity became an issue that hindered people living with HIV from taking their ARVs resulting into Non-adherence to their medication. On top of that, suspension of public transport hindered them from collecting their ARVs from their health facilities which contributed further to non-adherence and hence putting them at risk of contracting COVID-19 and other opportunistic infections like Sexually Transmitted Infections due to the reduced Immunity.

          8th World Congress on Control and Prevention of HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs (2020)

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 3

            Factors affecting HIV services utilization in a tertiary hospital in Manila (Amosup Seamen???s Hospital Manila)

            Jackeline Clemena - Aborde

            This study determined the significant psychological and structural factors affecting the utilization of HIV services among patient’s ages 20-49 years old in Seamen’s Hospital Manila. Factors were determined using a validated selfadministered questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA Statistical Software, Version 13, and College Station, TX: StataCorp LP. A p value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Several factors were identified as significantly affecting their decision to seek for HIV care: Among the younger population (20-24 years old): “do not know where to go for an HIV test”, “afraid of my privacy/anonymity” and “not sexually active”. Among the older population (35-49 years old): “long queue in the health facility”. Among the males, the following factors were noted: “have been tested in another facility” and “health facility opening hours”.

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 4 - 4

            DRESS Syndrome associated with the use of Antituberculosis Drugs in a patient with Treatment Nave HIV

            Gabriela Zambrano

            DRESS (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms Syndrome), is a drug related hypersensitivity reaction that occurs three to eight weeks after medication is instituted. It is characterized by the appearance of several kinds of rashes, lymphadenopathies, hematological abnormalities and systemic organ involvement Case Description: A 49-year-old female HIV positive patient consults for the sudden appearance of sub maxillary and cervical lymphadenopathies. She is diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis for which first line ant tuberculosis medications are instituted. Three weeks after beginning her treatment, she returns with maculo-papular skin rash and fever and is hospitalized for evaluation among her laboratory, there is the presence of leukocytosis with neutrophilia and eosinophilia, a positive serology for IgM herpes 1, a cholestatic pattern as well as discrete cytolysis and the presence of leucoytes, hematuria and proteinuria in the urine exam

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 5 - 5

            E-BABE-Promoting HIV/AIDS awareness and sensitization among orphans and vulnerable children

            Vicent Lwanga

            Studies on the spread of HIV/AIDS in Kapchorwa especially among youths have shown that they have poor knowledge on sexuality issues. Most young people become sexually active at a very young age when they have little or no information on their sexuality. These situations expose them to careless and casual sexual behaviors, unwanted pregnancies, which increase their risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Worse still, is the culture of silence, which have created information gap between youths, parents, elders and health providers. Adults feel uncomfortable and unwilling to discuss sexuality education with youths because they feel that discussing with them will expose the youths to early sex

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 6 - 6

            Delayed healthcare seeking is high among patients presented with sexually transmitted infections in HIV hotspot areas, Gambella town, Ethiopia

            Mache Tsadik

            Delay healthcare seeking is one of the major impediments to successfully prevent and control sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV. Gambella is one of the HIV hot spot areas and the most HIV prevalent region in the country. Considering the empirical knowledge of the link between STIs and HIV, gathering information on health seeking behavior and the associated factors among STI patients is helpful to design interventions that enhance early seeking and treatment adherence. A facility based cross-sectional study was employed to collect data from 424 STI patients from February 15 to April 15, 2017, using a face-to-face interview. A consecutive sampling method was used until the allocated sample for each facility was fulfilled. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with health-seeking behavior

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

            Global dynamics of a fractional order SIR epidemic model for HIV transmission with memory

            Parvaiz Ahmad Naik

            In this paper, we investigate and analyze a nonlinear fractional order SIR epidemic model with Crowley-Martin type functional response and Holling type-II treatment rate. The existence and stability of the equilibrium points are investigated. The sufficient conditions for the persistence of the disease are provided. First, we obtained a threshold value , which determines the stability of equilibria, then model equilibria are determined, and their stability analysis are considered by using fractional Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion and fractional LaSalle invariant principle. The fractional derivative is taken in Caputo sense and the numerical solution of the model is obtained by L1 scheme method which involves the memory trace that can capture and integrate all past activity. Meanwhile, by using Lyapunov functional approach, the global dynamics of the endemic equilibrium point is discussed

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 8 - 8

            Ten minutes eliciting interview promote the uptake of HIV test and sexual network analysis through referred sexual partners of men who have sex with men

            Piaoyi Chiou

            Men who have sex with men (MSM) tests for HIV often self-recognize when they have been exposed to unsafe sexual behavior and many sexual partners. It would therefore be important to include the sexual networks to the HIV testing campaign. The study aimed to elicit and deliver the HIV test to the sexual partners of MSM who received HIV pre-test counseling and discover the unknown link of sexual network. Recruitment was done through purposeful and snowball sampling. A ten minutes structured personal risk network interview was conducted to elicit the referral of sexual partners within three months. An anonymous HIV quick test was delivered at a time and place where convenient to the sexual partners.

            Value Added Abstracts Pages: 9 - 9

            Scientology applied to the workday of women feels just as good as sex: Non clinical examination of less sunlight habit Pharmacy Institute in Pune University

            Rahul Hajare

            Meditation has the same effect on our brains as sex. 20 new normal orgasms in a research row and affordable in all color of skin. Orgasms can a sexual event, which has attained at the culmination of a sexual activity. However, not all orgasms have derived from sexual activity to extended act. There are other activities, beyond sex, that also give the same feeling as an orgasm. Meditation can accept surprised to note that meditation has the same effect on our brains as sex. In both cases, there is a rush of blood to the pre-frontal area by side brain. Sex and meditation both lead us to a state of bliss and lack of selfawareness.

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