Journal of Nephrology & Therapeutics

ISSN: 2161-0959

Open Access

The Changing Epidemiology of Urolithiasis in Pediatric Patients


Judy N. Chen, Laura Malaga-Dieguez and Howard Trachtman

The etiology of kidney stones is divided in three broad categories: (i) Metabolic abnormalities that lead to excessive urinary excretion of solutes those are susceptible to crystallization or reduced excretion of inhibitors of crystallization (ii) Anatomic defects that cause disturbances in voiding or urinary stasis (iii) Idiopathic. The laboratory assessment has focused on 24-hour urine collections to measure excretion of calcium, oxalate, citrate, cystine, uric acid, magnesium, and creatinine, selective blood tests, and imaging studies to determine renal structure and function. This article reviews recent data suggesting that the incidence of kidney stones is rising in children and adolescents.


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