Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

ISSN: 2155-6113

Open Access

Impact of First Line Antiretroviral Therapy on Clinical Outcomes Among HIV-1 Infected Adults Attending One of the Largest HIV Care and Treatment Program in Nairobi Kenya


Musa Otieno Ngayo, Faith Apolot Okalebo, Wallace Dimbuson Bulimo, Christina Mwachari, Anastasia Nkatha Guantai and Margaret Oluka

Objective: This study evaluated the immunologic (CD4 cell count), virological (HIV RNA viral load), hepatic (alanine and aspartate aminotransferase - ALT and AST), renal (creatinine) and hematological (hemoglobin -HB, White Blood Cell - WBC, Lymphocytes - LYM and platelets - PLT) response to a six months ART treatment among HIV participants in Nairobi Kenya.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 599 consenting HIV infected participants receiving HIV treatment in Nairobi. CD4 cell counts were measured using flow cytometer and viral load determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The blood hematology, liver and kidney function tests were also measured. One-way ANOVA and Linear regression analysis were conducted.

Results: The median age at ART initiation was 41 years (IQR 35-47 years). The majority of participants (60.3%) were female and 56.1% started on regimens with 2 NRTIs and efavirenz based NNRTI. About 40% of the participants were failing treatment 6 month post ART initiation. The CD4 count significantly increased at the 6-month post ART initiation (301.7 ± 199.4 to 329.4 ± 305.8; P<0.05). Hepatotoxicity (ALT and AST levels >5 times the upper limit of normal - ULN) and renal abnormalities (elevated serum creatinine levels) were all high at month 6 compared to baseline; ALT (2.5 to 10.5%), AST (5.3 to 23.4%) and creatinine (63.4 to 68.84%). Fewer participants at month 6 had anemia (29.4% verses 56.4%), leucopenia (42.4% vs. 46.9%) and thrombocytopenia (6.5% vs. 84.1%) compared to baseline. In multivariable models, baseline levels of this parameter, ART regimen and duration with HIV at ART initiation were the most important determinant of month 6 levels.

Conclusion: These data demonstrate sustained immunologic/virologic response to ART among participants remaining on therapy. Anemia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were minimized with marginal hepatotoxicity and renal impairment seen. Interventions leading to earlier HIV diagnosis and initiation of ART could substantially improve patient outcomes in Kenya.


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