Neurological Disorders

ISSN: 2329-6895

Open Access

Epstein-Barr Virus, Hygiene, and Multiple Sclerosis in Mexico City


Jennifer Massa, Simon KC, Lopez-Ridaura, Rivera-Flores J, Silverman-Retana O, Corona T, Kagan IG and Ascherio

Background/Aims: We studied whether serological antibody titers against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were related to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk in Mexico City, a population undergoing an epidemiological transition. Additionally, we explored the association between markers of hygiene and intestinal parasite infection and MS prevalence.

Methods: We conducted a hospital based case-control study in Mexico City; 52 incident MS cases. Childhood and adult hygiene scores were created using information from questionnaires. 51 cases and 51 controls provided blood samples for biomarker analyses.

Results: There was a 3-fold increase in risk of MS with each 1 unit increase in anti-EBNA1 titer (OR 3.02, 95% CI: 1.01-9.02). Increasing childhood and adult hygiene scores were associated with a modestly increased risk of MS (ORchildhood 1.20, 95% CI: 1.04-1.38; ORadult 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04-1.58). We found no association between antibody titer to neither Stronglyloides nor Ascaris and MS risk.

Conclusion: High anti-EBNA1 antibody titers appears to be associated with increased MS risk even in a region where MS had historically low incidence and infectious mononucleosis is rare, providing further support for the postulated role of EBV in MS etiology. We also found moderate support for a role of higher ‘hygiene’ being associated with susceptibility to MS.


Share this article

Google Scholar citation report
Citations: 1253

Neurological Disorders received 1253 citations as per Google Scholar report

Neurological Disorders peer review process verified at publons

Indexed In

arrow_upward arrow_upward