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Journal of Surgery

ISSN: [Jurnalul de Chirurgie]
ISSN: 1584-9341

Open Access

Cholelithiasis - Epidemiology, Risk Factors and Etiopathogenic Aspects: Up-to-Date

Abstract

Vladimir Hotineanu, Viorel Moraru, Petru Bujor and Sergiu Bujor

Gallstone disease is the most common gastrointestinal disorder. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine the prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Gallstone disease is considered a surgical disease since only cholecystectomy is capable of definitively curing the disease. Cholecystectomy is a limited indicator for the prevalence of gallbladder stones, as the perceived threshold for surgery and patient access to care differ markedly. Most patients with gallstones are asymptomatic and the risk of developing symptoms or complications related to gallstones is approximately 1-4% per year. The common complications of gallstones include biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, common bile duct stones, and gallstone pancreatitis. Although this disease has a low mortality rate, its economic and health impact is significant due to its high morbidity. Many risk factors for gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The recognized risk factors of gallbladder stones for females cannot be extrapolated to men, and this demonstrates the polymorphic character of the etiopathogeny of cholelithiasis and requires further specification. Therefore, there is need for more knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of gallstone disease in order to better identify therapeutic strategies.

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