Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research

ISSN: 2155-6113

Open Access

A Community-Based Approach to Enhancing Anal Cancer Screening in Hawaii's HIV-Infected Ethnic Minorities


Bruce Shiramizu, Cris Milne, Kevin Terada, Kevin Cassel, Rayna K. Matsuno, Jeffery Killeen, Chin-Yuan Liang, Faye Tachibana, Tom Sheeran, James Weihe and Marc T. Goodman

Objective: Disparities in anal cancer incidence among Hawaii’s HIV-infected minority population is an emerging health concern. Although anal cytology/anoscopy are effective anal cancer screening tools, social barriers exist that prevent individuals from seeking appropriate care. Design: Community based participatory research (CBPR) principles were applied to develop resources, including testing a self-obtained anal specimen procedure, to increase anal cancer screening among Hawaii’s underserved/ minority populations.

Methods: A team of community members, academic researchers, and health care providers developed culturally-sensitive educational/recruitment materials regarding anal cancer risk targeting underserved/minority HIVinfected individuals. Self- and health care provider (HCP)-obtained anal cancer screening specimens were reviewed for cytology and tested for human papillomavirus DNA. A follow-up evaluation elicited feedback on attitudes and experiences.

Results: Community discussion sessions identified key messages about anal cancer, anal cancer screening, and HPV infection for materials and were used, that successfully recruited 46 individuals (38 males/8 females; 9 Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders/Asians, 2 Blacks, 6 Hispanics, 6 American Indian/Alaskan Natives, 23 Whites). Concordance in cytology results between self- and HCP-obtained specimens was moderated (kappa=0.37) with the perception that the self-obtained specimen procedure was private (93%), safe (100%), and easy to manage (100%); and a majority (92%) willing to use the self-obtained method again.

Conclusions: CBPR was a practical approach in engaging Hawaii’s HIV-infected minority participation in anal cancer screening research. Community outreach and recruitment efforts suggested that self-obtained screening specimens could be an acceptable and effective means to reach Hawaii’s HIV-infected ethnic minorities.


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