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Nature Toxic Disasters on Living Population

Short Communication

Pages: 1 - 1

Protected by-plan approach for diminished harmfulness of silica nanocapsules

Kaczerewska Olga

Mesoporous silica nanocapsules are a notable and driving nanocontainers' framework applied in a few fields (consumption assurance, antifouling, drug conveyance). In any case, it has been now revealed that the monomeric cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), utilized as a format in the blend of these nanocapsules, should be supplanted in view of being a wellspring of nanocapsules' harmfulness.

In this work we investigate the replacement of CTAB with dimeric surfactants, known as gemini surfactants. Works already available in the literature show that gemini surfactants tend to exhibit lower toxicity to fresh water and marine species than their conventional analogues. Therefore, this study can be envisaged as a safe-by-design approach to silica nanocapsules synthesis by replacing a commercial surfactant (CTAB) with a gemini surfactant (QSB2-12). Nanocapsules prapred using both surfactants were fully characterized by different techniques (BET, FTIR, DLS, TGA, SEM), while the short-term exposure effect was evaluated towards four marine species (the green microalgae Nannochloropsis gaditana and Tetraselmis chuii, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and the microcrustacean Artemia salina).

This work has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant agreement No 792945 (EcoGemCoat) and was developed within the scope of the project CICECO-Aveiro Institute of Materials, UIDB/50011/2020 & UIDP/50011/2020, financed by national funds through the Foundation for Science and Technology/MCTES.

 

Introduction:

A nanocapsule is a nanoscale shell produced using a nontoxic polymer. They are vesicular frameworks made of a polymeric film which epitomizes an inward fluid center at the nanoscale. Nanocapsules have numerous utilizations, including promising clinical applications for tranquilize conveyance, food upgrade, nutraceuticals, and for self-recuperating materials. The advantages of exemplification techniques are for assurance of these substances to ensure in the unfavorable condition, for controlled discharge, and for exactness targeting. Nanocapsules can conceivably be utilized as MRI-guided nanorobots or nanobots, despite the fact that difficulties remain.

 

The ordinary size of the nanocapsule utilized for different applications ranges from 10-1000 nm. Notwithstanding, contingent upon the planning and utilization of the nanocapsule, the size will be more specific.

Nanocapsule structure comprises of nanovesicular framework that is shaped in a center shell game plan. The shell of an ordinary nanocapsule is made of a polymeric layer or covering. The kind of polymers utilized is of biodegradable polyester, as nanocapsules are frequently utilized in natural frameworks. Poly-e-caprolactone (PCL), poly(lactide) (PLA), and poly(lactide-co-glicolide) (PLGA) are commonplace polymers utilized in nanocapsule formation. Other polymers incorporate thiolated poly(methacrylic corrosive) and poly(N-vinyl Pyrrolidone). As manufactured polymers have demonstrated to be increasingly unadulterated and reproducible when thought about normally happening polymers, they are frequently favored for the development nanocapsules. Be that as it may, some regular happening polymers, for example, chitosan, gelatin, sodium alginate, and egg whites are utilized in some medication conveying nanocapsules. Other nanocapsule shells incorporate liposomes, alongside polysaccharides and saccharides. Polysaccharides and saccharides are utilized due to their non-poisonousness and biodegradability. They are appealing to use as they take after organic membranes.

The center of a nanocapsule is made out of an oil surfactant that is explicitly chosen to facilitate with the chose tranquilize inside the polymeric layer. The particular oil utilized must be profoundly solvent with the medication, and non-harmful when utilized in an organic domain. The oil-tranquilize emulsion must have low dissolvability with the polymer film to guarantee that the medication will be conveyed all through the framework appropriately and be discharged at the best possible time and area. At the point when the correct emulsion is gotten, the medication ought to be consistently scattered all through the whole inner depression of the polymeric film.

Short Communication

Pages: 2 - 2

Nanoparticle Impregnated Porous films For the Removal of Antibiotics from Water

Farghal Hebatullah

Pharmaceuticals as emerging contaminants pose health risks to humans and all living organisms when disposed of in water streams. In the present work, we selected the ciprofloxacin HCl antibiotic as an example of contaminants of emerging concern which are commonly found in wastewater effluents. Removal of ciprofloxacin from aqueous solutions was investigated using porous polylactic acid (PLA) membranes impregnated in situ with single metal nanoparticles such as cobalt, nickel, copper or with a binary mixture thereof. Among the different employed membranes, cobalt-loaded ones exhibited the highest % removal of 80.7% followed by copper-loaded (70.9%) then nickel-loaded ones (68.7%) at pH 6.5 and initial ciprofloxacin concentration of 50 ppm. In addition, percent removal for cobalt-loaded membranes exceeded that of the unloaded ones by 1.3 times under the same employed conditions. Thus, cobalt-loaded membranes were further characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). FTIR measurements of the membranes pre- and post- adsorption indicated that PLA groups were not involved in the adsorption mechanism but rather interaction occurred onto the cobalt nanoparticles. DLS measurements showed that the zeta potential of the membranes is zero or slightly negative implying that the membranes are neutral under the employed pH. Being also neutral at this pH, ciprofloxacin HCl would not possibly interact with the nanoparticles via electrostatic interaction. The interaction, however, might involve physical adsorption followed by degradation.

Anti-microbials are ordinarily utilized drugs, and they have been distinguished in surface and groundwater. Water treatment plants utilize a few cycles to cleanse water for drinking. Coagulation and flocculation bunch together particulates and different impurities, which would then be able to go through precipitation to settle them out or buoyancy so they can be skimmed from the water surface. Next, filtration eliminates suspended particles, and afterward chlorine and bright light are utilized for cleansing. Treatment plants utilize different mixes of these fundamental cycles; in any case, customary water treatment units were not intended to treat anti-toxins.

Nanoparticles have gotten escalated consideration as far as therapeutics and analysis, in light of their extraordinary physicochemical properties that reform clinical treatment with more intense, less poisonous, and keen results. This part gives a diagram of significant classifications of Nanoparticles utilized for drug conveyance and finding, featuring their creation procedures, portrayal strategies, and physicochemical properties. The utilities of Nanoparticles in medication/quality conveyance are then summed up, which predominantly center around the capacities of NPs to stack drug/quality cargoes, conquer foundational conveyance obstructions, and intervene wise medication/quality conveyance in sick tissues/cells. The clinical accomplishments of nanomedicine are likewise delineated and talked about. At last, the uses of NPs for in vitro conclusion, in vivo imaging, and theragnostic are presented.

Ciprofloxacin is an anti-toxin used to treat various bacterial contaminations. This incorporates bone and joint diseases, intra stomach contaminations, particular kind of irresistible the runs, respiratory plot diseases, skin contaminations, typhoid fever, and urinary parcel contaminations, among others. For certain contaminations it is utilized notwithstanding different anti-toxins. It tends to be taken by mouth, as eye drops, as ear drops, or intravenously.

Normal results incorporate sickness, regurgitating, looseness of the bowels and rash. Serious results incorporate an expanded danger of ligament crack, pipedreams, and nerve harm. In individuals with myasthenia gravis, there is deteriorating muscle shortcoming. Paces of results have all the earmarks of being higher than certain gatherings of anti-microbials, for example, cephalosporins yet lower than others, for example, clindamycin. Studies in different creatures raise concerns with respect to use in pregnancy. No issues were recognized, notwithstanding, in the offspring of few ladies who took the drug. It has all the earmarks of being protected during breastfeeding. It is a second-age fluoroquinolone with a wide range of movement that typically brings about the passing of themicroorganisms.

Short Communication

Pages: 3 - 3

Potato cellulose Polymeric Films: Climate Eco-Friendly Waste Alternative to Petroleum-Based Polymers

Eltaboni Fateh

There are several benefits to commonly used synthetic plastics; however, their resistance to biodegradtion has a negative effect on the environment. Therefore, due to growing interest in sustainability and environmental concerns, the use of biodegradable polymeric films will become widespread. Over the past two decades researchers have made great efforts to grow naturally-based ingredients that improve starch texture and nutritional values. Besides its uses in other foods, Starch has other non-food applications, ranging from body care to medicinal applications. Because starch is a renewable and environmentally friendly material, it can serve as a good replacement for fossil-fuel components in many chemical applications, including plastics, detergents, and glues. This research aims at developing edible potato starch film by mixing potato starch (PSS) with sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and silica nanoparticles (SiO2) substantially controls its swelling and mechanical behavior. Potato starch film was prepared using glycerol as a plasticizing agent in aqueous gelatinous solution containing different quantities of SSG with and without SiO2. UV-vis spectroscopic technique was used to investigate the edibility of films in aqueus salt solution pH 7.4 at 25 oC. The rheological and mechanical properties of films have showed the different respenses of the films to SSG content and loading of SiO2. It has been determined that SSG's cross-linking capability plays a critical role in starch's mechanical and rheological properties.

Introduction: In the cutting edge world, reliance on oil based polymers has widely expanded throughout the years. Manufactured polymers like polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), nylon, polyester (PS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and epoxy (ordinarily known as plastic) are gotten from oil hydrocarbons. These polymers are an amazingly adaptable gathering of mixes—so flexible, truth be told, they can be found in a wide range of startling spots. Society utilizes engineered polymers in light of the fact that a significant number of them have exceptionally attractive properties, for example, quality, adaptability, resistivity, synthetic inactivity, etc. As of now, Kevlar has numerous applications, going from bike tires and dashing sails to body defensive layer due to its high elasticity. It is likewise used to make present day drumheads that withstand high effect. At the point when utilized as a woven material, it is appropriate for securing lines and other submerged applications. On the opposite side, different difficult issues are examined with respect to the usage of manufactured polymers. Numerous engineered polymers' most alluring element is their substance latency and their protection from different sorts of concoction/organic corruption. This equivalent property, be that as it may, likewise implies they keep going quite a while once they are discarded. For instance, researchers gauge that a solitary plastic sack could take as much as 500 years to separate.

Before, significant intrigue has been in the utilization of engineered polymers for the creation of composites. The utilization of these polymers, be that as it may, presents extraordinary difficulties. These incorporate a deficiency of the natural mixes due to declining oil and gas assets and expanding oil and gas costs. Different impacts incorporate natural worries for their corruption or burning and an Earth-wide temperature boost, uneconomical expenses, and cross-defilements in their reusing, and customer harmfulness dangers. These worries brought forth the mission for materials that can beat these difficulties and keep up the necessary properties for the different applications.

 

 

 

Short Communication

Pages: 4 - 4

Surface-active agent Production and Hydrocarbon Degradation Potential Of Bacteria Strains From A Crude-Oil Polluted Soil In Ogoniland Nigeria

Onuoha Ekeoma

There has been huge regard for the utilization of biosurfactants due to their expected mechanical and natural applications and environmental agreeableness. With hydrocarbon dirtied soil being the significant wellspring of biosurfactant creating microscopic organisms, consequently, biosurfactant creation and hydrocarbon corruption capability of microbes strains from hydrocarbon contaminated soil in Ogoniland Nigeria were explored. The bacterial strain Proteus cibarius- E1 was isolated as it was found to be a potent producer of biosurfactant on mineral salt medium at 30°C for 5 days. The production process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) by varying the pH level, Temperature, salinity, and Glycerol concentration. The produced biosurfactant was characterized using the ninhydrin biochemical test, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy(FTIR), and mass spectral (GC-MS) analysis. The degradative potential of the isolate on Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon was also investigated. The optimal and stable conditions for the biosurfactant production were found to be pH 7.0, temperature 37°C, Salinity 10%, and glycerol concentration 10% producing 1.8g/l was produced by Proteus cibarius. The biosurfactants produced were characterized as a lipopeptide having shown a purple complex in the presence of ninhydrin confirming the presence of free amino acid. The FT-IR chromatogram showed the presence of N-H and C-N Amine bond peaks and the GC–MS analysis identified the lipopeptide based biosurfactant as 11-Hexadecenoic acid methyl ester and trans-13-octadecenoic methyl ester fatty acids. The degradative efficiency at optimum temperature and pH for 14days was 81.5percent. These were compared to Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) the positive control and dH2O the negative control having 54.85% and 3.86% degradation respectively. The ability to produce biosurfactants makes the strain promising for enhanced oil recovery. A low-cost raw material substrate is a great economic attraction of the biosurfactant and offers countless opportunities in future development. The development of a polynomial model to be used in making predictions on the response for given levels of varying factors is a major contribution to knowledge. Its application will be of immense value to the industry.

Soil defilement or soil contamination as a component of land debasement is brought about by the presence of xenobiotics (human-made) synthetic substances or other modification in the normal soil climate. It is commonly brought about by mechanical movement, agrarian synthetics or ill-advised removal of waste. The most well-known synthetic substances included are oil hydrocarbons, polynuclear fragrant hydrocarbons, (for example, naphthalene and benzo(a)pyrene), solvents, pesticides, lead, and other hefty metals. Pollution is corresponded with the level of industrialization and power of compound substance. The worry over soil pollution stems basically from wellbeing hazards, from direct contact with the tainted soil, fumes from the foreign substances, or from auxiliary defilement of water supplies inside and fundamental the soil. Mapping of sullied soil destinations and the subsequent cleanups are tedious and costly assignments, requiring broad measures of geography, hydrology, science, PC demonstrating abilities, and GIS in Environmental Contamination, just as an enthusiasm for the historical backdrop of mechanical chemistry.

In North America and Western Europe the degree of sullied land is most popular, with a large number of nations in these zones having a legitimate structure to recognize and manage this natural issue. Agricultural nations will in general be less firmly directed in spite of some of them having gone through hugeindustrialization.

Short Communication

Pages: 5 - 5

Relative analysis of calculable Phytochemical Contents of Leafy Vegetables Sourced from Two Major Markets in Umuahia Abia State Nigeria

Ezekwe Chimere

Verdant vegetables assume a significant part in the sanative and officinal needs of the individuals of Umuahia in Abia State Nigeria. The verdant vegetables can be cut and crushed into a fluid or included suppers for clinical purposes. The similar appraisal of quantitative phytochemical substance of verdant vegetables sourced from two significant business sectors in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria, was finished utilizing standard techniques in sets of three. The quantitative phytochemical screening indicated that the alkaloids content of the leafy vegetables ranged from 0.63±0.02% to 5.13±0.01% with Vernonia amygdalina in Ubani recording the highest 5.13±0.01% while Gnetum africanum in Orie-Ugba recorded the lowest 0.63±0.02%.  There was no significant statistical variation (p > 0.05) between Pterocarpus soyanxii sourced from the two markets. The saponins content of the leafy vegetables ranged from 1.30±0.02% to 9.13±0.06% with Gnetum africanum in Orie-Ugba recording the lowest 1.30±0.02% while Pterocarpus soyanxii also in Orie-Ugba recorded the highest 9.13±0.02%. There was a significant statistical variation (p < 0.05) in saponins content of leafy vegetables of the same species between the two markets. The flavonoids level of the leafy vegetables ranged from 2.51±0.01% to 7.79±0.03% with Pterocarpus soyanxii in Orie-Ugba recording the lowest 2.51±0.01% and Talinum triangulare also in Orie-Ugba recording the highest 7.79±0.03%. There was a significant statistical variation (p < 0.05) in flavonoids content of the leafy vegetables of the same species from the two markets. The tannins levels ranged from 0.05±0.01% to 0.14±0.01% with Telfairia occidentalis in Orie-Ugba market recording the lowest 0.05±0.00% while Pterocarpus soyanxii in Ubani market recorded the highest 0.14±0.01%. The tannins levels obtained in this study were generally low, although the tannins levels in Orie-Ugba market were much lower. There was no significant statistical variation (p > 0.05) in tannins content between Vernonia amygdalina and Talinum triangulare samples in the two markets. The phenols levels ranged from 0.05±0.00% to 0.26±0.00% with Talinum triangulare and Pterocarpus soyanxii from Orie-Ugba market recording the lowest while Talinum triangulare in Ubani market recorded the highest 0.26±0.00%. There was a significant statistical variation (p < 0.05) in phenols content of leafy vegetables of the same species in the two markets. The phytochemical analysis carried out in this research have revealed that the leafy vegetables samples sourced from Orie-Ugba and Ubani market have appreciable amounts of phytochemicals which can serve the therapeutic needs of the residents of Umuahia. It is hereby advised that the steady intake of these leafy vegetables be encouraged.     

 

INTRODUCTION

Throughout the past 10 years, the general idea of promoting health using vegetables and fruits has become a rightful way of the preservation of mental and physical health by preventing or treating illness (Nielsen, 2010). Vegetables are crucial constituents of human diets that have nutrients which are needed in large quantities and element that occurs at very small quantities in the body but is nonetheless important for many biological processes (Abdullah and Chmielnicka, 1990). Vegetables have appearances that are green and leaf-like bearing edible roots, stems and leaves (Sharma, 2004). The basic components in vegetable leaves gives alkalizing results and also neutralizes the acidity caused by foods that have animal origin (Genderd, 1994). Vegetables provide good source of carotene, ascorbic acid, riboflavin, folic acid and minerals like calcium, iron and phosphorous (Nnam et al., 2012). Vegetables are foods that gives crucial protection and are good for the sustenance of good health and keeping diseases away (Kubmarawa et al., 2009). Phytochemicals can be defined as naturally occurring compounds in plants. Phytochemicals are responsible for the colour, flavour and smell of plants. Also, they help the plant fight against diseases. Therapeutic importance of phytochemicals to human health and fighting of diseases have been studied (Okwu, 2004). Phytochemicals are also non-nutrient, bioactive plant compounds in vegetables, fruits, grains and other plant products. They have been associated with cutting the risk of major degenerative diseases (Liu, 2004).  Phytochemicals, which are seen in large amounts in vegetables and fruits, are involved in this protective effect (Sundarrayanan et al., 2011). This research work aims to compare and assess the quantitative phytochemical contents of some selected leafy vegetables sold at Orie-Ugba Market and Ubani Markets in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria.

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