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Environmental Plant Biology |
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Open Access

Environmental Plant Biology

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Predicting Plant Communities in the Vicinity of Wheat Crops and Vineyards in Europe using Participatory Modeling

Gertie H.P. Arts*, M. Van Eupen, S.M. Hennekens and Peter J.F.M. Verweij

DOI:

DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s5.001

The risk assessment of pesticide use on non-target terrestrial plants is currently based on standardized greenhouse tests with a limited number of mostly crop plant species. Higher tier tests or assessments of any kind (e.g., field, semi-field, landscape studies) are not standardized. In this study we explored an approach to inform such a higher level by collecting datasets and information at European scale to characterize the vegetation communities that are likely to grow in the off-field areas of wheat and vine crops. The EUNIS (European Nature Information System) habitat classification was used to identify eight man-made habitats considered characteristic of the off-field areas in the European agricultural landscape. These habitats are spatially identified on the bases of a modelling process where vegetation plots, taken from the European Vegetation Archive, were used as observations and climate, soil, topographic, population density parameters and Remote Sensed Essential Biodiversity Variables as predictors. This modelling results in habitat suitability maps. The habitats are also described in terms of species frequencies and abundances, and to plant traits underlying possible vulnerability to pesticide exposure requested from the TRY plant trait database. Wheat and vine crop spatial data were derived from EUROSTAT and the QUICKScan methodology was used to combine all these data. We conclude that this method is helpful in reaching the objective as described in this paper. Its potential is that it can be extended probabilistically or linked to plant effect models.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Transportation of Arsenic (As) & Chromium (Cr) in some Fruits and Vegetables Plants and Variation of Nutritional Profiles due to Contamination

Suvanker Saha*, Sanzida Islam, Shamima Ahmed, Mohammad Shaokat Ali, Fahad Bin Quader and Md. Ashraful Islam

DOI:

DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s5.002

Contamination of Arsenic (As) and Chromium (Cr) are caused by both anthropogenic and manmade sources. These metals are highly reactive, carcinogenic and can cause severe problem with minimum amount of contamination. Agricultural chemicals, industrial wastes and environmental systems are considered significant contributors for these heavy metals transport to food chain despite their existence in natural condition. In this study, freshly prepared heavy metal solutions were used to see the overall transportation to planted vegetables and fruits. Concentrations of Cr and As were assessed in Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Significant level of Chromium (Cr) contamination were found in each of the leafs of vegetable and fruit plants ranges from 5.73 mg/g-23.22 mg/g while comparatively very low level of Arsenic (As) contamination were found in same samples ranges from 0.027 mg/g- 1.283 mg/g. Due to presence of metals in leafs the nutritive value also falls and the amount of crude protein drastically decreased and the amount of crude fiber gradually increased and replaced the protein portion.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters of Drinking Water in Samunaber and Piazza district, Gondar Town

Bekele Gelagay*, Sleshi Fente, Asnake Worku and Henok Birhanu

DOI:

DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s5.004

Physicochemical parameters; pH, Conductance (K), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Total Alkalinities (TA), Hardness, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Sulphate (SO42-), Chloride (Cl-), Fluoride (F-), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) were analyzed using standard analytical techniques. The mean values of physicochemical parameters in the town, higher values from the two districts are: pH (8.72 ± 0.15), Conductivity (362 μs ± 7.2 μs), Hardness (514 ppm ± 50.3 ppm as CaCO3), DO (5.2 ppm ± 0.35 ppm), TDS (1566 ppm ± 58 ppm), COD (531 ppm ± 8.1 ppm), SO4 3- (3.75 ppm ± 0.35 ppm), Cl- (162.1 ppm ± 2.0 ppm), F- (0.025 ppm ± 0.004 ppm), TA (30.0 ppm ± 1.2 ppm), Pb (0.130 ppm ± 0.010 ppm), Cd (0.0078 ppm ± 0.00035 ppm). The pH, Hardness, TDS, Pb and Cd higher values of the water samples analyzed in two districts of this study are not within the acceptable limits set by WHO for safe drinking water. However the maximum values of SO42-, Cl-, F-, TA, conductivity, analyzed in the two districts are within the maximum permissible level set by the WHO (World Health Organization) for safe drinking water.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 5

Screening of Microbial Isolates from Petroleum Effluent Polluted Site and Optimization of Culture Conditions for Cellulase Production

Ani Eberechukwu Adline*, Etienne Chukwuma Chinakwe and Ngozi Ursulla Nwogwugwu

DOI:

DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s5.003

Microbial cellulases have shown potential application in various industries including: paper and pulp industry, textile, laundry, biofuel production among others. Cellulase is predominantly identified among saprophytic wood decaying Basidiomycetes sp where they participate in a cascade of processes leading to wood decay. Out of the eight strains of white rot fungi isolated from the polluted site, strains of Pleurotus sp identified using cultural methods plausibly plausible showed best potentials upon screening with standard chromogene of p-nitropheny- α-D-glucopyranoside for the production of cellulose; Cultural production parameters optimized to show best suited for the enzyme production from the white rot fungi include: Incubation days, carbon sources, nitrogen and physiological pH. Lignocellulosic sugar rice bran gave highest catabolite induction of cellulase in the fermentation media with peak activity of 105 μmol/min, and ammonium sulphates (NH4)2SO4) as nitrogen source (109.53 μmol/min). Physiological pH of 7.0 was optimal for cellulose production while incubation day7.0 was found most suitable for the extracellular cellulose production. Petroleum effluent polluted soil has potentials for heterotrophic activity for isolates of Basidomycetes and these isolates have also shown much activity for cellulase production.

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Citations: 5266

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