Ecological Impacts of Wastewater Irrigation |

Open Access

Ecological Impacts of Wastewater Irrigation

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 6

Physicochemical, Pharmacokinetics, and Toxicity of South Africa Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) Sesquiterpene Lactone Compounds by In Silico

Nerdy Nerd*, Linda Margata, Bunga Rimta Barus, Bunga Mari Sembiring, Selamat Ginting and Tedy Kurniawan Bakri


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s7.002

Cancer is a disease caused by malignant growth that can occur in humans, animals and plants. Cancer treatment with chemotherapeutic agents is still the main option in cancer treatment. Various efforts to develop new treatment methods are needed for more effective cancer therapy one of them is cyclophosphamide. The sesquiterpene lactone compounds contained in South Africa Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) contribute to its pharmacological effects as anticancer for several cancers. This study aims to determine the pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity profile of various sesquiterpene lactone compounds contained in South Africa Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Delile). This research begins with a search for the physicochemical properties and Canonical Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES) code with the assisted of the PubChem, followed by computational processing with the assisted of the pkCSM and ProTox-II. Analysis the physicochemical properties, pharmacokinetics profile, and toxicity profile in comparison with cyclophosphamide as the standard anticancer drug. The results showed that South Africa Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) sesquiterpene lactone compounds had physicochemical properties that met Lipinski's rule (rule of five). Analysis of the pharmacokinetic profile of the parameters of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion; also the toxicity profile showed that South Africa Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) sesquiterpene lactone compounds had a similar to better profile than cyclophosphamide. The South Africa Leaf (Vernonia amygdalina Delile) sesquiterpene lactone compounds meet Lipinski's rule (rule of five), have a better pharmacokinetic profile, and have a lower toxicity levels than cyclophosphamide.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 5

Investigation of Heavy Metals in Jahangirnagar University Lakes Water in Bangladesh

Sumon Deb Nath*, Tasrina Rabia Choudhury and Rabindra Chandra Sinha


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s7.001

Using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS), concentration of toxic metals Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in two Jahangirnagar University lakes were determined. For Lake-1, concentration ranged as 0.021 to 0.031 mg/l for Pb, 0.6 to 1.029 mg/l for Fe, 0.006 to 0.09 mg/l for Mn and 0.0042 to 0.0069 mg/l for Zn. For Lake-2, concentration ranged as 0.028 to 0.032 mg/l for Pb, 0.593 to 0.682 mg/l for Fe, 0.069 to 0.116 mg/l for Mn and 0.0019 to 0.004 mg/l for Zn. Cd, Cr and Cu were found below the detection limit both in Lake-1 and Lake-2. For Lake-1, the observed pH and TDS ranges 7.33-7.37 and 126-156 mg/l respectively. For Lake-2, the observed pH and TDs ranges as 7.31-7.37 and 129-152 mg/l respectively. Insignificant correlation was found among the heavy metals in Lake-1. For Lake-2, Pb and Mn show significant positive correlations among themselves and negative correlations with Fe and Zn. Iron (Fe) is more than the recommended value of WHO as we as Bangladeshi drinking standards, would pose a serious problem for aquatic lives as well as human health. Monitoring of contaminant discharge at JU Lakes should be launched for future remediation as well as the management strategies.

Research Article

Pages: 1 - 4

Evaluation of the Methodology for the Chemical Extraction of Phorbol Esters contained in Jatropha Curcas Oil

Felipe Augusto Moro Loureiro* and Alana Lemos Cavalcante de Oliveira


DOI: 10.37421/2161-0525.2021.s7.003

The use of resources that are of natural origin and that the practices are sustainable both in the harvest and manufacture of other products are increasingly poignant in the world society. In this sense, the use of the Pinhão Manso fruit (Jatropha curcas), an oilseed similar to mannone and soy, can be used as an input for various products in the Chemical Industry ranging from biodiesel to fine chemicals. The current work is a prologue to the work of evaluating the methodology for extracting phorbol esters by means of solvent extraction. The solvent initially used was ethanol and for comparison, regarding the presence of phorbol esters, the albumen was pressed to obtain the oil. The characterizations were performed by FTIR, NMR and HPLC. Through the analysis of FTIR, NMR and HPLC, the presence of common fatty acids was observed. There is also evidence that even in small concentrations there is a presence of phorbol esters, even when the extraction is carried out by polar solvent.

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