Biodiversity and Endangered Species: Recent Advances and Old Challenges | Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

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Interferometric imaging for the characterization of ice particles and droplets in the atmosphere


The entacement of water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere is important for aircraft safety and meteorology. Interferometric out-of-focus imaging offers an interesting solution: The technique allows indeed size measurements of both kinds of particles, leading to a possible estimation of Ice Water Content and Liquid Water Content. In this technique, liquid droplets generate twowave interference motifs whose frequency gives the droplet’s diameter. In this talk, we'll go over how the device was built and how the first aerial photographs of liquid droplets were taken. After that, we'll show how the methodology could be used to ice particle characterisation. We'll talk about how an irregular rough particle's speckle-like out-of-focus image can reveal some information about its morphology. We'll illustrate how the size of such particles can be estimated based on the size of the light speck in their speckle-like defocused image. In order to adapt these observations made with salt or sand particles to the case of ice particles, it has been necessary to develop laboratory characterization experiments involving real ice. We created a chilly chamber for this purpose. Droplets of liquid fall into the chamber and freeze. A second well-calibrated technique (in our case, digital in-line holography) has been added to the setup to quantitatively validate the measurements acquired. The interferometric out-of-focus image and the digital in-line hologram of the frozen droplets are thus recorded at the same time.

We present the experimental results obtained. We show that the particle's sizes deduced from the size of the speck of light of the speckle-like patterns is corroborated quantitatively by the numerical reconstruction of the hologram recorded simultaneously for the same particle, and that the description proposed to evaluate the size of irregular rough particles is adapted to frozen droplets. The quasi-real-time algorithms created to distinguish liquid droplets and ice particles, measure their sizes, and evaluate the ice water contents and liquid water contents will next be presented. Ice crystal characterization is based on the analysis of speckle patterns. Prototypes based on interferometric particle imaging have thus been developed and tested in flight. In this lecture, the instrumentation developed to perform accurate size measurements will be described. The presentation will address: (i) the principle of the analysis of speckle patterns for ice crystal sizing, (ii) the development of laboratory instrumentation around a freezing chamber, (iv) their combination to ice crystal growth simulation using phase field modelling, (v) the generation of programmable pseudo-particles using a Digital Micromirrors Device and (vi) pattern considerations for the realization of an airborne instrument.

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Polyester powder coating of wood and wood composites with atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPJ)

Robert Köhler

Introduction: Powder coating is a viable alternative to traditional coating procedures. This procedure is especially environmentally beneficial because it allows for the absolute exclusion of any additives containing volatile organic compounds or organic solvents. It also ignores the necessity for unique substrate characteristics like electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity is especially significant in typical powder coating methods, because the powder clings to the substrate due to a difference in electric potential. A corona discharge is typically used to charge a powder, and the powder is sprayed onto a grounded substrate. . In case of wood and wood composites, the limited electrical conductivity constitutes a disadvantage. Pre-heating or priming process with an electrically conductive wet lacquer is frequently required to coat a nonconductive and porous substrate like the ones indicated above. Materials & Methods: An APPJ was utilised to apply a polyester powder (Interpon 610 MZ013GF; D50 50 m) from Akzo Nobel Powder Coatings GmbH, Arnsberg, Germany) on wooden and wood-like substrates in this work. The powder material is made up of iso- and terephthalic acid, and it was deposited using the source's effluent plasma zone. European beech wood (Fagus sylvatica L.), Grand fir (Abies grandis lindl), and medium density fiberboard were used as coating substrates (MDF). The coating was annealed in an oven at 180°C for 10 minutes after the plasma process. To detect possible chemical degradation of the applied polyester during the plasma coating process, the coated samples were analysed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

In addition, laser scanning microscopy was used to determine the layer thicknesses of the samples (LSM). Adhesive strength investigations were carried out using dolly test based on ASTM D 4541-02 and DIN EN ISO 4624:2016-08 Results: Due to the plasma technique, the applied powder material did not undergo any chemical changes, and the adhesive strength of the layers satisfied realistic criteria of >1 MPa. The atmospheric pressure plasma coating procedure for wood and wood-based goods shown here could be a viable alternative to conventional wood coating technologies. Biography Robert Köhler is pursuing his PhD at University in Göttingen. His thesis is concerned with “The weathering resistance and the catalytic degradation of VOC`s of plasma particle-modified wood and wood materials”. Currently, he is a research scientist at the project “PLaNaWood2- functionalization of wood and wood materials” with financial support from the German Federal Ministry of education and research. He has published one poster presentation and one patent.

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New frontiers of magnetic materials for regenerative medicine

Ugo D'Amora

The fundamentals of magnetism and magnetic materials have been widely used in medicine in recent years (such as, in drug and gene delivery and hyperthermia treatment of tumors). The idea of applying these concepts to tissue engineering has sparked a burgeoning field of research. Tissue engineering strives to create multidisciplinary approaches to tissue repair and regeneration. The major goal is to use three-dimensional biodegradable and biomimetic "scaffolds" as a template for cell growth and extracellular matrix deposition in order to repair tissues. The main driving idea behind the development of magnetic scaffolds was to create structures that could be manipulated using magnetic force gradients that attracted bio-aggregates and were linked to magnetic carriers (i.e. vascular endothelial growth factors) to stimulate angiogenesis and bone regeneration. They can also be utilised as hyperthermia agents to provide thermal energy to specific parts of the body. The manufacturing process, as well as the material and scaffold properties, such as morphological, chemical-physical, mechanical, and mass transport performances, have all been given special consideration through topological optimization. Additive manufacturing was used to create entirely biodegradable and magnetic nanocomposite scaffolds in particular. Experimental/theoretical in vitro investigations and in vivo experiments were used to evaluate the scaffolds' properties. MicroTomography and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to conduct morphological analyses. Mechanical investigations at the micro, macro, and nanoscale were also performed. A magnetic study was used to evaluate the behaviour of these materials, revealing that they may be magnetised at 37°C with an external magnetic field. Confocal Laser Scanning microscopy and the Alamar .

Blue assay were used to examine human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion and viability, while ALP activity was used to determine cell differentiation. Also investigated was the effect of a time-dependent magnetic field on cell-laden constructions. Finally, this research revealed that these materials would be good candidates for bone regeneration. Since the skeleton plays significant functions in the normal physiological functions of the human body, including as mechanical support, organ protection, and mineral homeostasis maintenance, strategies to enhance bone regeneration have traditionally been the focus of research. Magnetic fields have been found to have a big impact on the regeneration process, which has sparked a lot of interest in using magnetic materials to boost osteogenesis. We attempt a more comprehensive and detailed review of magnetic materials in promoting bone regeneration in this paper, which includes not only the mechanisms of bone regeneration, the history and basic concepts of magnetism, but also the different types of magnetic materials, their influence parameters, designs, and fabrication techniques, with a focus on their use in the field of bone regeneration like 3D printed scaffolds and implants. In addition, we discuss some potential synergistic effects of magnetic and other materials on bone tissue. Finally, we suggest that magnetic materials will continue to grow in the field of bone regeneration in the future. Patients with diseases including fractures, tumours, and osteoporosis, which cause acute aches, bone loss, limb deformations, and mobility constraints, are in desperate need of a more effective and less traumatic technique to speed bone regeneration. Magnetic materials have a lot of potential for being turned into new clinical applications that can improve bone regeneration efficiency.

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Impacts of entropic separation effects

Alexander von Wedelstedt

Mitigating the impact of climate change and striving for appropriate resource and raw material management are two of the most pressing issues of our time. Industrial processes must also be adjusted in order to achieve those goals. This development must, among other things, try to replace nonsustainable practises with environmentally beneficial ones. Adsorption technologies could be used to replace unsustainable techniques like distillation in order to separate hydrocarbons. Metal-organic frameworks are good candidates for conducting extremely efficient adsorption procedures to separate hydrocarbons because of their high surface-tovolume ratio and the vast range of options for designing and modifying the pore environment. However, for a wide range of industrial applications, a thorough understanding of separation effects and the behaviour of guest molecules within metal-organic framework channels is required. Apart from the well-known separation processes based on enthalpic, kinetic, or steric (i.e., sieving) differences, there is a third process based on entropic effects that appears to be virtually unknown and, as a result, is frequently overlooked. The efficiency with which guest molecules can organise themselves inside the channels of nanoporous materials is described by these entropic effects. Entropic separations are of particular importance because of the high selectivities that can be achieved. The goal of this talk is to provide a brief overview of entropic separation effects and to demonstrate individual results from Monte Carlo simulations of entropic hydrocarbon separation.

Adsorption techniques based on metal-organic frameworks ­­â€“ or nanoporous materials in general- There is another separation process based on entropic differences, in addition to the well-known separation methods based on enthalpic, kinetic, or steric (i.e., sieving) differences. The efficiency with which guest molecules can be organised within the channels of nanoporous materials is described by these entropic effects. They can lead to surprising selectivities in some circumstances [1-3]. Regrettably, these impacts are rarely considered and appear to be essentially unknown. The goal of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of entropic separation effects and to identify potentially intriguing metal-organic frameworks capable of solving separation problems efficiently using entropic effects. To that purpose, grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations were used to calculate the adsorption isotherms of a variety of hydrocarbon mixtures for a variety of metal-organic frameworks, as well as visualise the organisation of the examined guest molecules within the channels of those materials. Grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine the adsorption isotherms of a range of hydrocarbon mixtures for a number of metal-organic frameworks, as well as visualise the organisation of the investigated guest molecules within those materials' channels.

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Highly sensitive and selective gas sensor utilising tips pentacene based organic thin film transistor

Amjad Al Shawi

In recent years, organic sensing technology has received a lot of attention. This type of sensor has dominated research in academia and industry because to its low fabrication cost, great sensitivity, short response, and recovery time. The bottom-gate, top-contact (B-G, T-C) arrangement was used to build and characterise organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) based on 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) (TIPS) pentacene in this study. After producing a clean glass substrate, a gate electrode of 50nm aluminium was thermally evaporated. The insulating layer was spin coated (2000 rpm) from a 5 percent anisole cross-linked polymethyl methacrylate (cPMMA) solution with [1,6-bis(trichlorosilyl) hexane (C6-Si) (10/1ml) as a crosslinking agent to generate a 330nm layer thickness. As the active layer, a tips-pentacene semiconductor (2 percent toluene solution) was drop coasted on the cPMMA layer. Finally, to provide the drain and source, gold electrodes with a thickness of 50nm were thermally evaporated on the TIPSpentacene active layer. The current-voltage characteristics of the OTFT sensor and the response to varied concentrations of ethanol (from 1ppm to 8ppm) were examined after the OTFTs were exposed to varied concentrations of ethanol vapour. The output characteristics (VDS = 0 – (-60) V) were studied with various gate voltages (VGS= 0 – (-50) V) and ethanol concentrations. When the OTFT is subjected to ethanol vapour at room temperature (25 Co), the drain source current in the saturation area reduces rapidly. In addition, the transfer characteristics with various ethanol concentrations revealed a noticeable shift in the threshold voltage, which rose (from -2V to -18V) as the ethanol content increased.

A sensitive and selective organic field-effect transistor (OFET) pair sensitive to nitrogen dioxide gas and five additional vapour analytes was created using the biomolecule guanine and the organic semiconductor pentacene. The OFET with the guanine-pentacene sensing unit was first found to be more sensitive to nitrogen dioxide gas. Then, when it came to the other vapour analytes, these two types of OFETs had opposite responses and/or different response magnitudes. The two OFETs' sensing responses have distinct patterns, allowing them to differentiate particular analytes such as nitrogen dioxide. The research shows how a low-cost, environmentally benign biomolecule can be used in organic electrical sensing. One of the most promising candidates for room temperature operated gas sensors with good selectivity is the organic semiconductor gas sensor. However, organic semiconductor sensors have long lagged behind classic metal oxide gas sensors in terms of performance, particularly for the detection of oxidising gases. Following a thorough examination of the shape and electrical properties of organic films, it was discovered that ultrahigh performance is highly dependent on the film charge transfer ability, which was previously overlooked in research. And it's been shown that combining efficient charge transport with a low original charge carrier concentration is a good way to get high-performance organic semiconductor gas sensors. As a result, the source drain current in TIPS pentacene-based OTFTs can be employed as a sensor for chemical gases and as an important metric for monitoring chemical species.

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