Njla Yehya Elhaj Wardgo
Introduction: Streptomycin is a first aminoglycoside synthesized as products of Streptomyces griseus and is inhibitor of protein synthesis. The resistant mutants obtained in vitro have abnormal ribosomes. In few clinical strains of staphylococcus aureus there is some evidence for plasmid locus or gene determining streptomycin resistance (ayliffe, 1970; grub band and oreilly,1971). The mechanism of resistance is uncertain. Since ancient time, naturally occurring plants have played an important role in the discovery of new therapeutic agents. Almost all antibiotics are subjected to the problem of bacterial resistance. Garlic (allium sativum Linn) has an important dietary and medicinal rule for centuries. Its typically pungent odor and bacterial activity depend on allicin, allicin, one of the active principles of freshly crushed garlic homogenates, has variety of antimicrobial activity.
Methods: Garlic powder was purchased from local market. The 70% of ethanol was prepared. Bacterial strain was inoculated on sterile nutrient broth and incubated at 37c for 24 h. Each culture was swabbed on the surface of sterile nutrient agar plate in duplicate. Standard streptomycin with different concentration was added.
Result: Mean zone of inhibition was expressed and compared with the control. The findings of this study reveal the distinct antibacterial profile of Allium sativum Linn. Solely and in streptomycin synergism against streptomycin-resistant S. aureus. Staphylococcus is a gram positive aerobic and nonaerobic, immobile. It is a catalase positive, and capable of mannitol fermentation. S. aureus is very sensitive to alcoholic extract. The antimicrobial activity of garlic is depending on allicin compound, which is more effective on gram positive bacteria much more than gram negative. Allicin is very important compound that create the antibacterial properties and limit the speed of RNA synthesis. Use of garlic extract solely is fruitful. Synergistic use can prevent the pathogenic organism grow their resistance against antibiotic.
Anfal Nasreldin Bagal Serag
Introduction: Surgical site infections coincide and contribute to healthcare associated infections, therefore the definition of surgical site infections (SSIs) referred to infections that occur in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure which were one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp., etc. Gram positive bacteria were found to be more predominant in the postoperative wound samples compared to the Gram-negative organisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli were multidrug resistant (Chaudhary et al, 2017). Surgical Site Infection has been increased over the past few years. World Health Organization (WHO) documented that 66% of establishing countries have no imprinted data related to the burden of SSI and the data based on the surgical prophylaxis is insufficient. However, good quality of the microbiology laboratory practice is important, in Sudan, while searching in literature there no researches to date on this topic of laboratory diagnosis for surgical and nosocomial infections monitoring antibiotic resistance. In Alfasher, however, patients suffer from post-surgical infections and good quality in microbiology laboratory practice is mandatory. However, there will be no good laboratory practice without excellence in quality and professionalism. This study was proposed to apply quality in the medical microbiology laboratory using proper isolation system, culture for microorganisms, antibiotics sensitivity testing and DNA sequencing for bacteria resistant to antibiotics in surgical site infection.
Methods: We evaluated this study by using Molecular techniques in Microbiology laboratory, Bacterial DNA prepared for PCR according to the standard method. DNA concentration was determined using spectrophotometer, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by applying the agar diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) recommendations, Standard quality Measures, such as standard operation procedures, quality of environment, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) is a software package used in statistical analysis of data.
Result: In total, 80 resistant isolates (18 Gram positive and 62 Gram negative). All S. aureus isolates were resistant to both penicillin and oxacillin. K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to carbapenems. The molecular screening of carbanemase genes was based on a previously published multiplex PCR technique. Recent studies show that not only bacteria, but also bacterial genes can move freely among humans, animals and the environment (Oliveira P.H., et al, 2007). In our study the resistant Gram-negative rods (GNR) were a common finding, confirming their increased prevalence in hospital-associated drug-resistant infections. In conclusion, our results demonstrated the presence of important clinical pathogens in patients with post-surgical nosocomial infection, which are likely to be released in the environment
Mona Timan Idriss Gassab
Background: Influenza virus is a major public health and its control continues to be a challenge. One of the possible sources of anti-influenza active agents might be Rooibos teas (RT), with various pharmacological actions.
Methods: We searched for anti-influenza activity using standard in vitro antiviral assays such as Inhibition of virus induced cytopathic effect (CPE) assay, inhibition of viral plaques, and hemagglutination assay. Time-of-addition assay was performed to target an event in the virus life cycle.
Results: RT crude extract showed anti-influenza activity and the 50% effective inhibitory concentration (CC50) was 4%, while IC50 for A/WSN/33 was 0.13%, when they were measured with both Crystal violet and Water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assays. The virus-induced cytopathic effects were thus significantly reduced. Plaque assays demonstrated that RT extracts reduced virus infectivity markedly in dose dependent manner, when the viruses were treated with RT extract before exposure and post exposure to MDCK cells. In contrast, pretreatment of MDCK cells with RT extracts before influenza virus infection did not affect virus infectivity. The inhibitory effect of RT extract was observed against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1), A/WSN/33 and A/HK/8/68 (H3N2) and influenza B. Our results suggest that RT extract contains anti-influenza virus substances that directly affects influenza virus particles and disrupts the function of virus adsorption to host cells.
Conclusions: These results have exposed the capability of the extracted RT for strongly inhibit influenza virus replication and offers an opportunity for the development of a new anti-influenza virus agent.