32nd Nano Congress for Future Advancements

Journal of Nanosciences: Current Research

ISSN: 2572-0813

Open Access

32nd Nano Congress for Future Advancements

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Pages: 1 - 1

Past Conference Editorial of Nano Congress 2020

Jianqi Zhang

The 31st Nano Congress for Future Advancements hosted by Conference Series LLC was successfully held during June 12-13, 2020 as a Webinar and was marked with the presence of the committee members, senior scientists, young and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented students from various countries, who made this conference successful and productive.

We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference

Nano Congress 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Nanotechnology.

Nano Congress Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference.

Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “Nano Congress 2020”.

  • Jianqi Zhang, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, China
  • Nancy Healy, Georgia Institute of Technology, USA  

Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate Nano Congress 2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs & Co-Chairs and the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC LTD thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of Nanotechnology

Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “33rd Nano Congress for Future Advancements, which will be held during April 12-13, 2021 at London, UK. We cordially welcome all the eminent researchers, Presidents, CEO’s, Nanotechnology scientists and researchers in Nano sectors, Delegates to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of Nanotechnology with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.

Bookmark your dates for “Nano Congress 2021, London” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

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Oxygen Storage Behavior of Nanoparticulated Pr1-xZrxO2-?

Jianqi Zhang

Pr1-xZrxO2-δ (x=0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1) nanoparticles were synthesized by ultra-sound assisted coprecipitation. The crystalline structure, morphology and composition of the fresh prepared and thermally aged nanoparticles were analyzed by XRD, TEM and Raman spectroscopy. The oxygen storage capability (OSC) and thermal durability were examined by temperature programmed reduction (TPR). The oxygen storage and transport mechanism were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by correlating electrical conductance with lattice defects. The results indicate that Pr1-xZrxO2-δ nanocrystallized particles exhibit fluorite structured except ZrO2 nanoparticles with a typical tetragonal structure. The oxygen storage and release capability of both fresh prepared and thermally aged Pr1-xZrxO2-δ increases monotonously with increment of Pr concentration (or decrease in Zr) to a maximum value of 1200 [μmol/g] that corresponds to PrO1.833 (Pr6O11), indicating their superior OSC and thermal durability. Unlike conventional Ce1-xZrxO2-δ promoters, the oxygen storage, release and transport of Pr1-xZrxO2-δ nanocrylline solid solutions accompanies with a homologous series of phase transformations by the change in lattice defects of oxygen interstitials, electron holes and Pr3+ cations. Compared to Ce1-xZrxO2-δ, Pr1-xZrxO2-δ presents better OSC (x≤0.4), thermal durability and a different mechanism on oxygen storage and transportation. This study manifests that Pr1-xZrxO2-δ (x≤0.4) solid solutions can be used as better promoters for the three way catalysts (TWC) in lieu of Ce1-xZrxO2-δ.

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Pages: 3 - 3

How Nanotechnology in the Food Industry Could Fight Against Covid-19?

Carla Palencia-Aguilar

Nanotechnology in the food industry could be used to fight against Covid-19 in three ways: 1.It can increase the immunological system because the process implemented herein concentrates vitamins, minerals, fiber, proteins, among others. 2. The products can be preserved for periods longer than 2 years without adding any chemicals. 3. The virus within the product will disappear because the molecular sieves are smaller than the virus (10-10 versus 10-9), and during the dehydration process, if Covid-19 is present in the unprocessed product, during dehydration, the molecular sieves and biopolymers will allow the virus to attach to their surface, thereafter, it is destroyed in the regeneration process when the sieves and biopolymers are placed in an oven at temperatures higher than 250oC. The molecular sieves and biopolymers are used as filters inside a vacuum chamber; temperature and pressure changes tuning, by trial and error until the desired characteristics are obtained are required to fulfill the process. Other advantages include: the system does not use any contaminant substances during the drying process, colour and smells are preserved and concentrated; the discharge is only limited to water vapour. More than 1000 products had been tested over a 12 years’ research. In addition, sub-products development could result from the recovery of wasted material such as toothpaste and calcium pills from egg shells, cosmetics from mangostine and shrimp peels, bromelain from pineapple stems, among others. Whenever sub-products’ development is not possible, the waste could be used for soil improvement by means of composting.

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The Efficiency of TiO2 Nanoparticles Synthesized from Aloe Vera Leaves Extract Compared to Liposomes as Delivery System for Doxorubicin: In Vivo Study Using Erlich Solid Tumor Model

Doaa A. Abdelfadeel

Doxorubicin (Dox) is well known for its broad spectrum anticancer activity; however it suffers from severe toxicity. The primary goal of loading Dox in different nanodelivery systems is to decrease nonspecific organ toxicity.

Dox encapsulated liposome (Doxil) has been approved by FDA for ovarian cancer and Kaposi's sarcoma treatment in United States. However, the researchers are still going on to optimize the liposomes and to compare them to other types of nanoparticles.

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) have been the focus of many promising applications due to their unique properties, low cost, availability and biocompatibility. This study illustrates a simple, safe, low cost and ecofriendly technique for green synthesis of TiO2NPs from Aloe Vera leaves extract at different pH values. Doxorubicin was loaded in liposomes and conjugated to greenly synthesized TiO2NPs. Both formulas were fully characterized then they have been injected in mice bearing Ehrlich tumor and compared to aquous solution of Dox.Tumor volume measurments and histopathological examinationwere conducted. The results reveled that both formula of Dox were more efficient than aqueous Dox solution, however, Dox encapsulated in liposomes showed more efficiency in treatment of tumor.

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Pages: 5 - 5

Development of a Method for Industrial Production of Plga Nanoparticles with Quality by Design (qbd) Approach

Esma Nur Develi

Poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs), which are named as gold standard FDA, are conventionally produced using different methods none of which are suitable for industrial production. O/w or w/o/w emulsification process is the most common method, in which removal of the organic solvent needs an evaporation process in R.T. Furthermore this process needs employing toxic excipients to emulsify the organic phase in aqueous media which are not applicable in production of PLGA NPs in bulk scale.   

Microfluidizer instruments (MF) with the principle of homogenization at high pressure, are very convenient devices for industrial production of ‘self-assembly, systems, including PLGA NPs. In the present study, PLGA NPs were synthesized using MF while the formulation parameters were optimized by application of Quality by Design (QbD) approach.

In the Central Composite Design (CCD) used for the optimization of PLGA NPs the variable parameters of MF were processing pressure and number of passes, while the formulation variables were PLGA amount (mg) and Tween80 amount (mg). 60 formulations were designed and the optimized formulation was chosen according to the responses including small particle size (PS), high zeta potential (ZP) and narrow Poly Dispercity Index (PDI). The o/w emulsion was prepared using a simple mechanical stirrer prior to MF process and the organic solvent (acetone) was evaporated using spray dryer.  

In this study curcumin was used as active ingredient encapsulated in PLGA nano-micelles. As a result injectable, (PS less than 200 nm) and stable (ZP higher than -25 mv) PLGA NPs were obtained with a narrow PDI value (less than 0.2).

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Pages: 6 - 6

The Biological Activities of NiS Nanoparticles and NiS/PEG Nanocomposites from Primary Amines

Felicia F. Bobinihi

The increase in the outbreak of new infectious diseases coupled with the increase in drug resistance pathogens have aroused the interest of chemists in the quest for new and effective compounds with improved pharmacological potentials. The recent pandemic ravaging the whole World called corona virus disease (COVID-19) is a typical example. It is proposed that antibiotics, anti-inflamatories and anticoagulants are the way forward to fight this dreadly virus because it is suspected from autopsies to be disseminated intravascular coagulation (Thrombosis) Nickel as an essential element for biological systems is very relevant in the search for novel compounds against infectious and drug resistance diseases and development of metal based pharmaceuticals and so, is very useful in the preparation of antibiotics. This work explores the versatility of dithiocarbamate complexes of Ni metal from different primary amines. The biological activities of the prepared nanoparticles were studied, and incorporated as nanosize particles in the matrices of Poly Ethylene Glycol (PEG) materials as nanocomposites to determine the improved activities over the bulk complexes based on the small size dimensions and nanoparticle drug delivery system. The slight alteration in their structures lead to great quantitative and qualitative changes in their activities which was observed in the metal sulphides obtained as they yielded anisiotropic nanoparticles. These changes could be ascribed to differences in the decomposition profile in the solvothermal process used for the nanoparticles synthesis. The different nanoparticles displayed interesting optical and structural properties, which are dependent on their morphology with a decrease in the average size as the chain length of the substituent increased . An increased in antibacterial and antifungal activities was also observed.

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Pages: 7 - 7

The Convergence of Technologies, Generates Convergence in the Regulations

Guillermo Valdes Mesa

The convergence of nanotechnologies generates synergies among different technologies to say, nanotechnologies, neurotechnology, computers and biotechnology, these technologies must converge) itchier regulations, the application of medical devices in nanotechnologies should lead us to a link between the technical committee TC 210 and ISO technical committee 229 link that does not exist in our work in this moment In this do an analysis of the management of risk from an optical NC-ISO 14971 ). Studying the global trend in this respect as imported for manufacturers medical Devices worldwide. The convergences of technologies are a consequence of atomic precision, where the boundary between the biotic and abiotic mute blur the interaction. The interaction between nanotechnologies, biotechnology and informatics and communications (NBI) generates a synergy of unusual consequences of all is known that the industry of semiconductor)s is the one of greater precision that is atomic, the new medical devices that will be applied in the teranocis will dose Physical principles that will be governed under the laws of quantum mechanicsbut there are two problems that have not been solved even though they are one the non-existence of quantum biology and the transition from quantum to classical mechanics. On the other hand, the redefinition of the international system of units based on the universal constants that will be implemented by 2019 has a deficiency that is the second that redefirms implies redefinition of the meter the chain of traceability proposed for nanometrology presents a serious difficulty when putting the microcopy of atomic force wing of effect  tunnel situation that is changing the verification of the Wiedemann-Franz law at atomic level yields a result where the phononic component is taken into account, a result that launches STM to the cusp of the chain of traceability above inclusive of interferometry.

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Pages: 8 - 8

A Comparative Study of Liver Cancer Treatment Methods Using Thermal Ablation Versus Gold Nanoparticle Therapy

Ibtihag Yahya

One of the most complex problems over the past decades is clinically approved cancer treatment methods because of the conventional methods side effects such as radiation, chemotherapy, and some medication. Correspondingly, in recent years and since 2010, the diagnosis and treatment of cancer have taken a great deal of interest, especially in the field of designing and developments of inorganic nanoparticles because of its unique properties such as thermal heating ability, surface functionalization, surface plasmon, absorption, and scattering properties. This study aims to compare strategies for using thermal therapy versus gold nanoparticles therapy. COMSOL Multiphysics was used to model both techniques by using electric current and bioheat transfer modules for ablation method and heat transfer in solid module for the gold nanoparticles method to treat a cancerous tumor that was discovered in the liver. This study's results of this computational modeling proved that using gold nanoparticles was examine the effectiveness of these particles as a heat source for hyperthermia in liver cancer therapy without affecting the surrounding natural tissue and damage it. This method can overcome the challenges faced by the ablation treatment method, such as hyperthermia and the inability to heat cancer cells locally and thus, limiting the heat within the tumor circumference very complex and difficult which is affecting the surrounding natural tissue and damage it. In conclusion, COMSOL Multiphysics was a very useful platform for modeling the hyperthermia treatment for cancerous cells necrosis over time.

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Pages: 9 - 10

Photochemical Reactions in the Irradiated Poly (para- substituted styrene) in Solid Films and in Solutions

Khalid E. Al Ani

In the last few years, much attention has been focused on research to prepare new generation of Poly (para – substituted styrene), and to study the irradiation, thermal and plasticization effects on stability of these new polymers. The photodegradation of irradiated solid films was studied by using UV – Visible, Fluorescence, FT - IR and TLC spectroscopic techniques. Irradiated pure and blended Poly (para – substituted styrene) solid films showed a gradual increase in the absorption intensity of the main band with the increase in the amount of blended plasticizers and increase in the irradiation time as well as the formation of new bands at longer wavelengths. The fluorescence spectra of irradiated polymers in solid films and in solutions of different polarity, showed a deformation in the fluorescence main band and the appearance of new bands at longer wavelengths, indication the distraction of polymer chains and the formation of new photo products through the formation of free radical reactions. The FT – IR spectra of irradiated pure and blended solid films, showed an increase or decrease of the polymer vibration frequencies, as well as a changes in numerous inferred bands intensities. The increase in the intensities of the analyzed ranges is attributed to the formation of carbonyl, hydroxyl, and aliphatic ketones and to the increase in the number of polyene structures that resulted from hydrogen abstraction during photodegradation reactions. The analysis of the Fourier-transform infrared spectra of the irradiated and nonirradiated samples showed a noticeable formation of a new broad band centered at (1,727 cm−1, C=O), assigned to the growth of aliphatic ketones formerly from the reaction of reactive alkoxy radicals. Its intensity was found to increase with the increase in irradiation time and also with the increase in the amount of added Terephthalate and phthalates plasticizer, indicating an increase in the efficiency of the photo degradation process. The analysis of fragments that resulted from the photo irradiation samples of PSP in solution, using electrospray ionization-ion trap (ESI). Where the separation and determination of the fragments which resulted from degraded polymer were studied by LC–ESI-MS in positive mode, and gave the best specificity and sensitivity for their detection. The positive ion (ESI-MS) spectra showed five main peaks of the total ion chromatogram (TIC). All the compounds that were resulted from the photodegradation of the irradiate polymer solution gave the protonated molecules [M + H+] after ionization in the electro spray source. The fragmentation ions showed the formation of monomer, dimmer and oxygenated organic compounds. Some kinetics work was applied to the results on fluorescence intensity of the excimeric emission to evaluate the quenching efficiencies and photo quenching rate constant by applying Al Ani – Hawi equation. Electrophilic substitution such as (Cl, and Br) in the para position of the polymer backbone should less stability towards UV – Irradiation, whereas, necluophilic substitution such as ( - H, -CH3, -OCH3, -OC2H5, -C6H5, α – CH3, α –OCH3, Phenyl and – C (CH3)4 should higher stability towards irradiation of plasticization. Among the para-substituted polystyrene, Poly (4- fluorostyrene) should a very high stability towards irradiation and plasticization that all polymers used in these studies. It is even more stable than polystyrene, The mechanism of the photodegradation of these irradiated polymers was found to started from abstraction of α – hydrogen atom from the phenyl group followed by a random chain scission in the polymer backbone. Proposed mechanism for the photodegradation of para-substituted styrene in solid films and in solution was based on the decrease or increase in the functional groups that appears from the FT – IR spectra of irradiated solid films.

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Pages: 11 - 11

Advances in Biomemisis of Nano Materials and its application

Madhavi Swamy

Biomimesis is the science that incorporates or mimics the model; structure and working of nature.The working mechanisms of natural elements such as efficiency, durability, adaptability and self-healing capability have always intrigued designers and engineers. This scientific integration has been useful in solving complex real life problems mainly self-repairing abilities, multifunctional coatings, environmental exposure tolerance and resistance, energy crisis, etc. By studying this art of life we can enhance the working of our existing mechanical modules. For instance, maple seeds use aerodynamic principles to disperse themselves into the wind over long distances, they rotate while falling off and eventually this spin stabilises the descent even under the influence of strong wind velocities. The centre of gravity of the wing shaped seed is determined by the positioning of the heavy nut located at the base, which helps in maintaining a lift even with slow velocity. This technique has been used in developing helicopter blades, gliders, aircrafts and drones. Despite the technological advancements in the field of science, engineers and scientists are having difficulty in solving complex engineering and survival problems. Innovating with Bio inspired solutions will help us not only to solve such problems but also to address the concerns of climate change. This paper reviews the existing technologies used in biologically synthesizing the nanomaterials and their highly efficient properties. A thorough report on various categories of biomimetics will also be studied

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Pages: 12 - 12

Protective Effects of Free Curcumin and Its Nanoparticles on Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Murine Model

Marwa Hassan

Curcumin, a natural compound present in turmeric, has a potential aptitude to suppress carcinogenesis in pre-clinical models. However, its therapeutic applications are constrained by its prominent metabolic instability as well as inadequate absorption. The current study was designed to enhance the curcumin bioavailability by exploiting the drug delivery systems; nanoparticles. Eleven groups of mice with six animals in each group were divided into: control group, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) group induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injection, 2 groups treated with DEN plus high dose (50 mg/kg) and low dose (10 mg/kg) of free curcumin, 2 groups treated with high and low dose of free curcumin, nanoparticles control group, 2 groups treated with DEN plus high dose (3.3 mg/kg) and low dose (0.6 mg/kg) of nanoparticulate curcumin, and 2 groups treated with high and low dose of nanoparticulate curcumin. It was found that DEN administration significantly increased serum liver enzymes, VEGF, TNF-α, AFP, MDA, and NF-kB. Also, it decreased serum albumin and tissue antioxidant activities and caused severe histological changes in hepatic tissue. Oral treatment of DEN-injected mice with either high dose of free curcumin or the two tested doses of nanoparticulate curcumin resulted in a significant improvement of all the tested parameters and the histopathology of liver tissue. In conclusion, our results showed that the high dose of free curcumin and the two doses of nanoparticulate curcumin were effective in preventing DEN-induced HCC indicating that the nanoparticles improved curcumin bioavailability as they were effective in preventing HCC despite their enormouslylowdoses.

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Pages: 13 - 13

The National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure and its Role in Meeting the Workforce Nanotechnology Demands in the US

Nancy Healy

The United States has invested heavily in nanoscale science and engineering over the last 20 years. In 2001, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) was established and was reauthorized in 2003 by the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act. Over this period, the US has supported Nanotechnology R&D and education with $29 billion in support. As part of the nano R&D, the National Science Foundation established nationwide user facilities beginning in 1997 the the National Nanotechnology User Network (NNUN) and which is represented by the 16 site National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI). In addition to supporting nanoscale research, these user facilities have also developed numerous education programs to help address the NNI’s Strategic Plan Goal #3: Develop and sustain educational resources, a skilled workforce, and a dynamic infrastructure. This presentation will discuss strategies that have been successful in developing a workforce pipeline from K through gray under the NSF-funded user facilities, especially those of NNCI. No discussion of nanotechnology education and workforce development would be complete without reference to the National Science Foundation funding of numerous nanotechnology education programs focusing on developing a nano-enabled workforce and an educated public that supports the safe development of nanotechnologies. This presentation will present examples of successful programs that have had nationwide impact not just under the NNUN - NNCI continuum but also other programs such as the Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge program at Pennsylvania State University and the now sun-setted Nanoscale Informal Science Education Network.

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Pages: 14 - 14

Future Advancements ? Where will the Workforce Come from to Meet Future Nanotechnology R&D Needs?

Nancy Healy

Nanoscale science and engineering has advanced over the last decade at a very rapid pace. NanoCongress 2020 is addressing future advances in nanotechnology over a wide range of nano topics yet one “future area” is minimally addressed at this conference, and missing from most other nanofocused conferences e.g., - the future workforce needed to keep pace with this field’s growth. It has been estimated that by 2020 nanotechnology will need 2 million workers worldwide with another five million in supporting roles. Rocco and Bainbridge (2016) also ask: “What are the most pressing research and education issues? How can we develop a transforming national strategy to enhance individual capabilities and overall societal outcomes?” This presentation will discuss strategies that have been successful in developing a workforce pipeline from K through gray. In the US, the National Science Foundation has funded numerous nanotechnology education programs focusing on developing a nanoenabled workforce and an educated public that supports the safe development of nanotechnologies. This presentation will present examples of successful programs such as our Research Experience for Undergraduates. This program’s participants are part of a longitudinal study spanning back to 1997 and encompassing ~1500 students. Over half of these interns are in nanotechnology related fields and 90% in STEM. Some of these students have participated in a second year international program to develop globally aware researchers. To continue to be successful in creating and maintaining a nano-workforce it will be necessary to have joint efforts of academia, industry, and government.

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Pages: 15 - 15

Synthesis of hybrid nanoparticles via aerosol photopolymerization

Narmin Suvarli

Present work is focused on producing polymeric nanoparticles using aerosol photopolymerization – an eco-efficient, surfactant-free and continuous polymerization process with immediate formation of radicals without the need for heating. This technique is a good alternative to water-based emulsion polymerization processes towards the synthesis of spherical polymeric nanoparticles and nanocapsules, as well as nanostructured particles. In addition, the aerosol photopolymerization process has been used to produce organic-inorganic spherical nanocomposites (ZnO nanoparticles inside a polymeric matrix). The recent project is concentrated on adjusting this technique to produce polymeric hybrid nanoparticles with tunable diameter via thiol-ene polymerization. Advantages of thiol-ene chemistry (i.e. radical initiation, step-growth mechanism, fast polymerization, consumption of all monomers) are used to produce spherical polymeric nanoparticles with silver or gold nanoparticles inside. These hybrid nanoparticles can be an effective tool for cancer diagnostics and treatment.

The process follows an elementary protocol. A spray solution containing silver nanoparticles of chosen size, monomers (thiol and alkene), photoinitiator and the volatile organic solvent was atomized using commercially available pneumatic aerosol generators forming a droplet aerosol. Droplets were polymerized during the passage through photoreactor and converted into silver nanoparticles encapsulated into a polymeric network. Collected nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules using conjugation techniques for further means of application.

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Pages: 16 - 16

The Effects of PLGA-Curcumin Nano-Formulation on the Levels of Nf Kappa B Sub-Units in Cancer Cell Lines

Seyma Bulut

In addition to the toxic effects of cancer chemotherapeutics on healthy cells, it is important to increase the effectiveness of these drugs by means of pro-oxidant polyphenols especially by considering their costly price in clinical use. Polylactic-co-glycocolic acid (PLGA), the most used one among polymeric materials, is a biomaterial commonly used in new drug delivery systems and approved by the FDA. In many studies, safety and efficacy of curcumin in prevention and treatment of cancer has been emphasized. NF-kB; is a transcription factor in regulation of many genes which are responsible of inflammation, immune response, proliferation and apoptosis. The increase in the level of reactive oxygen species due to stress affects the NF-kB transcription factor in the cell. A better understanding of the NF-kB structure and mechanism of action will play an important role in the reduction of cellular stress and hence the emergence of new approaches and mechanisms of action in eliminating the negative effects of stress. The investigation of the effect of PLGA-Curcumin Nano-formulation (Nano Curc) on the level of NF-kB subunits in cancer cells were investigated in this study.

The effect of Nano-Curc on the ratios of four sub-units of NF-kB including P65, P52, P50 and C-Rel were evaluated on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines which were pre-treated with paclitaxel. P65 was the most supressed sub-unit by Nano-Curc which could be counted as the success of this nano formulation in decrease of inflammation at cancer tumor.

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Pages: 17 - 17

The Modification of Einsteins DMR Relation in Quantum Wire Super Lattices (QWSL) and Study of Shubnikov De Hass Effect in Parabolic Semiconductors: Simplified Theory and Suggestions for Further Experimental Determination in Biomaterials

Sudip Chatterjee

The semiconductor super lattices (SLS) and nano wires have found wide applications in many electronic device structures and bio devices such as photo detectors, light emitters, avalanche photo diodes, compensatory transistors, tunneling devices, genetic diodes etc. The most extensively studied SL is the one consisting of alternate layers of GaAs and Ga1-xAlxAs, owing to its fabrication. The GaAs layers form the quantum wells, quantum dots, quantum wires and the Ga1-xAlxAs layers form the potential barriers. We wish to note that, the afore mentioned SLS have been proposed with the assumption that the interfaces between the layers are sharply defined with zero thicknesses so as to be devoid of any interface effects. As the potential form changes from a well (barrier) to a barrier (well), an intermediate potential region exists for the electrons. Thus the influence of the finite thickness of the interface on the carrier dispersion law becomes very important since, the carrier energy spectrum governs all the transport properties. In this paper, we shall investigate the DMR for the most interesting case which occurs in QWSLs of graded interfaces and compare the same with that of the constituent materials by formulating the respective one dimensional electron dispersion laws.

The above mentioned inversion layer (ILs) also produces the well-studied Shubnikov de has effect in different nano structured materials and have been found wide applications in the molecular and cell biology.


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