The Impact of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities- The Al-Salt City as a Predicted Case Study

Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering

ISSN: 2165-784X

Open Access

Review Article - (2020) Volume 10, Issue 4

The Impact of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities- The Al-Salt City as a Predicted Case Study

Nadine Al-Bqour*
*Correspondence: Nadine Al-Bqour, Department of Architecture, Hashemite University, Al-Zarqaa, Jordan, Tel: + 00962779003647, Email:
Department of Architecture, Hashemite University, Al-Zarqaa, Jordan

Received: 15-Jun-2020 Published: 26-Jun-2020 , DOI: 10.37421/jcde.2020.10.348
Citation: Al-Bqour, Nadine. “The Impact of World Heritage Site Designation on Local Communities / As-Salt City as a predicted case study” Civil Environ Eng 10 (2020): 348 doi: 10.37421/jcce.2020.10.348
Copyright: © 2020 Al-Bqour N. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


The City of Salt As the sixth Jordanian site in the list of World Heritage sites, there is many efforts have been devoted to include the city of Salt in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to be nominated in the list of World Heritage Sites as it is an ancient city that has many historical, urban and archaeological qualifications in the distant and recent past, also with considering the natural qualifications of the city. The inclusion of the city of Salt in the list of World Heritage sites raises many questions about the possibility of achieving this achievement, and the implications of the local community based on this inclusion, whether the positive or negative effects in aspects of Economic, social, behavioral, political. Also considering the community and tourists vision of the state of the world heritage site in the city and its support to this status, and highlighting the role played by Salt in the development of tourism in the case if it takes a place in the World Heritage List, this paper will be examined through several previous studies in this framework, and will develop expected results for these impacts on the local community accordingly.


World Heritage Site • Cultural Heritage • Sociocultural impacts • Designation a Word Heritage Site • Heritage Tourism • Local Communities • Tourism Development.


What is a WHS?

The World Heritage Site is a landmark or area selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other importance and is legally protected by international treaties. Sites are important for the collective interests of humanity [1-3]. The World Heritage City is actually a place of various values, ideas and disputed meanings, combined with collective memories, place senses and disputed identities and constantly discussed [4].

To be selected, the World Heritage Site should be a distinctive and unique landmark, in some respects as a geographical and historical place of particular cultural or physical significance (e.g. ancient ruin, historical structure, building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake or Monument or mountain or wilderness area). May indicate a remarkable achievement of humanity, and serve as a guide to our intellectual history on this planet [3,5].

The program classifies and preserves the names of sites of cultural or natural significance to the culture and common heritage of humanity. Under certain circumstances, listed sites can receive funds from the World Heritage Fund. The program began with the Convention for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO on 16 November 1972. Since then, 193 States have ratified the Convention, making it one of the most widely recognized international conventions and the most popular cultural program in the world [3,6-8].

The Committee decides that the site is threatened before Current or potential threats, such as deterioration of uncontrolled or unsustainable urbanization Exploitation of natural resources. [2].

Literature Review

The case study that was chosen in this review is the Salt City, Jordan, for the reasons about worthy of being nominated and listed on World Heritage sites. It has many features that qualify it through the urban character cultural identity from the recent past, which deserves to be highlighted as a world heritage site, and it is also expected to be included in the list of World Heritage sites according to its qualifications.

The Idea of World Heritage Site – Historical Background

Heritage is the contemporary use of the past and heritage not only for economic but also cultural purposes and the current status is assessed as a cultural value of heritage, as most of the newly opened tourist attractions are an ancient heritage. [9].

The idea of world heritage originated in the debates led by the League of Nations, But only after World War II. In 1954, the Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Condition The conflict in The Hague was ratified. For the first time, States have considered this damage Cultural property means damage to the cultural heritage of all mankind. [2,7,10,11].

The search for the World Heritage Site (WHS) seems to be on the rise as both developed and developing countries compete for this global prize. The enthusiasm of the various countries for inclusion in the World Heritage List has many reasons for it to bring recognition and hope of the ability to reap the benefits of the mark in terms of greater media coverage, gained prestige through association with UNESCO and other prestigious properties already included, And local development through the future development of international tourism [7,10,11,12].

Convention on the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage Adopted in November 1972 and entered into force in December 1975. It was ratified By 24 countries in 1976 and 193 in 2017. The association of the terms "cultural" and "natural" is a break from the former Heritage Perceptions. The Convention established three types of property: cultural, Natural and mixed (both cultural and natural characteristics) [2,7,11].

Countries compete to enter the list of World Heritage sites to attract tourists and earn profits, leading to the emergence of unknown places. At the same time, these countries are struggling to get involved in global homogeneity due to globalization in the postmodern world where heritage becomes as a commodization statues and is used to attract tourists. [9].

Out of these reasons why cities are scrambling for the title of World Heritage site, the city of Salt is also a case that as it submitted itself for listing in 2015, 2017 and 2019 in last February.

Nominating process in world heritage site list

The Country must first include its important cultural and natural sites; the result is called the tentative list. A State may not nominate sites not initially included in the tentative list. After that, the specified locations from that list can be placed in the nomination file, the nomination file is evaluated by the International Council of Antiquities and Sites and the World Conservation Union. These bodies then submit their recommendations to the World Heritage Committee. The Committee meets once a year to determine whether each nominated property should be included in the World Heritage List and sometimes delays or transmits the decision to request further information from the nominated State. There are ten selection criteria - the site must meet at least one of the criteria to be listed. (8) (3).

The criteria of designation a world heritage site

Selection criteria, which is the main work tool of the World Heritage, where the Committee regularly revises standards to reflect the evolution of the World Heritage concept itself. Until 2004, there were six standards for cultural heritage and four standards for natural heritage. In 2005, this was amended so that there is now only one set of ten criteria. Candidates must be "of outstanding global value" and meet at least one of the 10 criteria. And it have been modified or modified several times since their inception. [2,8].

As it mentioned earlier that there are ten criteria that the state must meet at least one of them to be nominated for inclusion in the list of world heritage. Six of these standards are cultural criteria, and four are natural criteria as follows [2,3,8]:

Represents a masterpiece of creative human genius and cultural significance.

1. An important exchange of human values, over a period of time, or within a cultural region of the world, shows developments in architecture, technology, archaeological arts, urban planning, or landscape design.

2. Bear a unique or at least exceptional testimony to a cultural tradition or to a civilization that lives or disappears.

3. A great example of a type of building or architectural or technological group or landscape that illustrates an important stage in the history of mankind.

4. Is a prime example of a traditional human settlement, land use or use of the sea, which represents a culture or human interaction with the environment, especially when it is vulnerable under the influence of irreversible change.

5. Directly or tangibly connected with events or living traditions, ideas, beliefs, and works of art and literature of global significance.

Natural criteria

1. Contain supernatural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance

2. Is a prominent example representing the major stages of earth history, including the record of life, continuous geological processes continuing to develop terrestrial forms, or important geomorphological or physiological parameters

3. A prominent example represents the important environmental and biological processes under way in the development and development of terrestrial ecosystems, freshwater, coastal and marine systems, and flora and fauna communities

4. Contains the most important and important natural habitats for conservation in the natural habitat of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of global value from the point of view of science or conservation.

The Committee considers that it meets one or more of the following procedures Standards and authenticity testing [2].

The central values of historical preservation in the process of setting the site of the public heritage, of buildings and urban features along a major corridor, such as street facades, construction facades and basic buildings, are the priorities of the preservation of the historic city [13].

For the city of Salt, the two criterions were included in the tentative list in accordance with the second criterion and the third criterion which are in the cultural standards as mentioned above.

The second criterion is that a prominent example represents an important exchange of human values over a period of time within a cultural region of the world, Architecture, archaeological arts and urban planning, and the third criterion includes that the city bears a unique certificate of cultural traditions of civilization that live or disappear and it is clear that they can be applied in the city of Salt in the province of Balqa.

The Changing Nature of World Heritage

Sites Designation

Over the past decade, there has been a strategic shift in approach to the designation of WHSs. In 1994, the World Heritage Committee called for correcting the existing imbalances between the regions of the world and their types while at the same time moving away from pure architecture and asking developed countries to slow down their nomination rate in order to address the marked imbalance in material preference over non-physical materials, Cultural heritage listed in the World Heritage List in 1996 for better consideration of intangible cultures and indigenous peoples. UNESCO has established lists of intangible cultural heritage with a view to ensuring better protection of the important intangible cultural heritage throughout the world and awareness of its importance [11,12,14].

The city of Salt in Jordan from the Authors` point of view contains the tangible heritage of architectural and urban structure and the heritage of the recent past and the heritage of civilization found and disappeared (Roman civilization), also the intangible values, cultures, customs and traditions even popular cuisine for the inhabitants of the city known as (Salty) Among them from one generation to the next and who are distinguished from other governorates in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, thus keeping the city of Salt in line with the changing nature of the World Heritage Sites.

The Significance of World Heritage Sites


The World Heritage List gave impetus to the idea of world heritage, none of which existed for 30 years, Analysis of the effects and importance of developing WHS becomes problematic due to the diverse nature of the different sites around the world, all sites may share common administrative dilemmas related to conservation, access and visit, but their social and political importance depends heavily on the type and location of the site, for example, the social and political importance of the original cultural scene in a developing country is unlikely to be directly comparable to that of the historic European city, Even with regard to management, there is little homogeneity between sites [11,12].

The status of WHS is seen as an enormous place at the global and national level, as well as influencing future planning decisions at the local level, the designation of WHS tends to mean that the site will be able to change, usually leading to increased publicity and an increase in the number of visitors, but the noticeable increase in the number of visitors is not inevitable, however depends on the marketing of the site and its approach to access, which will later affect the effects of the designation of a World Heritage site, WHSs should therefore recognize the importance of educational and interpretation facilities so that the public can gain maximum benefit from their visit. [11,12].

The list of world heritage at risk can serve as a conservation Tool, allowing countries to access the international Technical assistance. It is also a means of political mobilization and General support to keep the site at risk National level [2]. Strengthening collective assistance, presenting and transferring the natural and cultural heritage of future generations so that the international community is fully committed to it [2]. UNESCO is focusing equally on the conservation of heritage and the use of World Heritage sites. Its policy is to make it clearer that World Heritage sites are in good condition for future generations and that they are made available to the public as much as possible. Previous studies show that the physical environment of World Heritage sites is not well managed and damaged due to frequent tourist visits and overcrowding [9,15].

From this perspective, it is possible to expect the importance of the city of Salt when it enters the list of World Heritage Sites. By knowing the existence of Salt in a developing country, the social and political importance of the cultural scene will be transitional from the local to the global framework. It will be a major factor for changing, promoting tourism development and increasing the number of visitors depending on the marketing of the site. The World Heritage List for the city of Salt can serve as a tool for conservation of international assistance and the promotion of collective assistance, and the transfer of heritage and conservation for net generations and make it available to the current generations as much as possible, and as a means of political mobilization and global supporting.

World Heritage Site as a brand

A heritage or cultural site can be made known to the public as a list of World Heritage sites can make the site stand out clearly. The World Heritage Site list promotes the site and tends to act as a sign of originality and international quality that acts as a magnet for local and international tourists. Previous studies have shown that the status of World Heritage sites is of symbolic value, bringing great prestige at the international and national levels and ultimately affecting local planning decisions [9,15-17]. On the other hand, there are traces of this brand as a World Heritage site that calls for conflicts between the local associations of the site and their global ownership by imposing additional pressure on the physical and natural environment and the local people living on the site [9,15-17].

The World Heritage Site brand can operate effectively in the city of Salt. In the Authors` point of view, initially, it will be an educational tool for the local community, motivating them to support and preserve the city as a world heritage site and serve as a symbol of originality and quality. This will give the city a symbolic value that will make it a great place for both national and international audiences. It will be a powerful influence on planning decisions in the region and will make it a good fit for the city by managing its preservation as a World Heritage Site.

Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and World

Heritage Site status

There are already five sites on the list of World Heritage sites: Petra, Um Arasas, Wadi Rum, Baptism (Beit Ania), Qusayr Amra, and 14 other sites on the nomination list. After 35 km northwest of Amman, to be listed in the World Heritage List. A local team of experts was formed to follow up the process in coordination with the Department of Antiquities (DOA) and the Greater Salt Municipality. The Ministry also formed a team of experts to follow up the nomination of Salt and another team of historians from the University of Jordan Historical File filtering [18].

Cultural Heritage in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Due to its location on historic trade routes in the Middle East, Jordan has been home to a mix of cultures and religions all the time. UNESCO is focusing on strengthening the management framework for World Heritage properties in Jordan and further protecting the country's heritage, in line with the 1972 Convention [19].

Jordan's cultural heritage is unique and diverse. The material cultural heritage (archaeological and traditional sites) is the treasure of Jordan, and natural heritage is another important part of the Jordanian heritage. The Jordanian cultural heritage is divided into traces (i.e., objects, movable or immovable, constructed, remodeled, registered, constructed, excavated, produced or otherwise modified by mankind) [20].

From the Authors` point of view, the city of Salt contains a diverse and unique heritage, combining urban cultural heritage through the city's archaeological and traditional sites. It also contains a natural heritage that is an inseparable part of the city's heritage, as well as the abundant natural resources of the Salt region.

Nominating Salt City as the sixth UNESCO World Heritage site in Jordan

Initially Petra was then Wadi Rum, Qusayr Amra, Umm al-Rasas, the site of Baptism, and now the city of Salt, in Balqa, will be submitted for nomination. When one reads the criteria for filtration, one can only speed up immediately in the town that gave its name to Sultana (the delicious dried grape produced there for centuries) [21]. To be a prime example of traditional human settlement, land use or use of representing a culture (or cultures), or human interaction with the environment, especially when they are vulnerable to irreversible change; directly or tangibly connected with events or living traditions , Ideas, or beliefs, with works of art and literature of global significance [21].

The city of Salt, located just northwest of Amman, has attracted settlers since at least the Iron Age. Lies on the "boundary of the settlement"; the dividing line between desert, fertile soil and abundant water. The city was always protected from thieves and was also ideally positioned on the north-south and east-west trade routes linking the interior of Jerusalem, Nablus, Nazareth and the Mediterranean coast. Which includes a mixed group of Muslims and Christians and has helped their trade traditions create an atmosphere of tolerance and coexistence. Salt has seen many golden times making it unique in Jordan and beyond [21,22]. The rich history of the city of Saltos Herikatun is evident from the Roman tombs on the outskirts of the city and the 13th century Mameluk castle where you can feel the impact of all these civilizations as you walk from them and into the city center. Officials of the Ottoman Empire declared in 1596 that Salt was the only prosperous city in the region. By the early nineteenth century [21,22]. The city was a profitable trade center between the region and urban industries in Palestine. Travelers wrote about a thriving city with shops supplying cotton from Egypt, to the famous Nablus soap. Salt began to expand and spread architecture and new construction. The first modern church was built, along with the first hospital and school. Shops, yellow stone houses with original and European styles are spread over more than one story, vaulted ceilings and interior courtyards, some with frescoes painted by Italian artists. All these qualities and advantages have made them eligible for the list of World Heritage Sites [21,22].

Impacts of Designation a World Heritage Site

The main objectives of a city designation and inclusion in the World Heritage List are certainly related to the implications of living in a World Heritage City [4]. Clearly, the generalization of the perceived effects of debate is difficult given the diversity of locations and the complex set of geographical, political, social, and cultural factors that can affect their management. However, there are a number of common effects for all WHS, these include some practical, physical and symbolic advantages, such as political and financial support, improved conservation and visitor management, and enhanced destination image. On the contrary, sites are vulnerable to the increasingly negative effects of visits, gentrification, and commoditization. Thus, in some cases, granting a WHS score can be regarded as a two-edged sword [12].

The author thinks that the inclusion of the City of Salt in the list of World Heritage sites raises many questions about the effects of this positive and negative inclusion and the community's view of them whether supporting, rejecting, or avoiding them. And about the role that the city will play in the event that it is included in the list of World Heritage sites in the tourism development process or their occurrence at the risk of tourist pressure on the physical and cultural environment.

The main factors for impacts of designation a world heritage site

There are three main factors behind these changes and impacts, and previous studies have found that they are centered on the rapid and rapid tourism development after registration as a site of global weather; the high level of demand for the site after its registration as a World Heritage site by local tourists; the attitudes of local people to preserve heritage and cultural value World Heritage Site. In addition to its conservation plan, there must be a complete tourism management plan for the future of the successful location as a place to live for the local liqueur and also as a world-class tourist destination. The changes that are taking place are seen through research in the development and maintenance of tourism and visitor management [9].

The impact of designation a world heritage site on social context

Adopting an open-door policy in the postmodern era, which requires transforming a city into a world heritage city, has many implications for the local community. The presence of five archaeological sites in Jordan has been included in the list of high heritage, but the impact of the transformation of the city of Salt to the World Heritage City on the community deserves to be studied to predict the negative and positive effects.

As they say bad news is mentioned before good news, which enables us to better assess the situation and by reading some of articles in this context, local communities and designation a world heritage site, Previous studies have shown that the effects are centered on the relocation of many local residents from their place of origin, causing many social problems such as gentrification due to the lack of financial support from the government, and when heritage tourism became the dominant industry in the city center, Their daily life has become uncomfortable as a result of the development of heritage tourism in the city because of its designation as a World Heritage Site [13].

The introduction of heritage tourism has changed dramatically in the relations of the local population with their livelihoods. Many restrictions are imposed on the local population to meet the needs of tourists, affecting the people's lifestyles [13].

All the projects that have been undertaken to develop the Al-Salt City, as it is clear in their names, emphasize tourism first and foremost - the focus that is reflected in policies and implementation strategies that give priority to the visual experience of tourists. It is not surprising, then, that the cultural significance of the urban historical landscape of Salt has become a clear focus on the architectural aesthetics of isolated façades at the expense of the most fundamental aspects of urbanization. Consequently, the policies that follow continue to ignore the morphological aspects of interactions between the historical urban landscape and the social, economic and cultural activities of its inhabitants, such as land use (parcels and land), mobility and circulation (i.e., the street network) and building blocks [22].

The negative impacts raise clearly in the age of globalization, and the designation of a world heritage site seems to be a factor for these impacts, including the displacement of local populations and public services and the elimination of local activities from the traditional context of life, the controversy over heritage and its restoration, Local people with limited access to heritage are separated from their city, commodization and gentrification [13].

The designation of World Heritage Sites and the World Heritage Site brand activates local products and trade but may be negative on the other hand such as changes such as deterioration and marketing resulting from enhanced site promotion through the World Heritage List [9,16,23].

Local residents adapt their historical sights to suit their contemporary needs through commitments such as expanding some streets and turning others into one-way roads and introducing electricity into the urban landscape. In fact, a study conducted in 2004 on the city of Zu'bi revealed a continuous adjustment of the structures of Salt. On the other hand, residents continue to adapt their lifestyles to fit the historical urban landscape as illustrated by the municipality of Salt [22].

Previous studies indicate that the designation of a World Heritage Site promotes local identity, unites the spirit of the community and increases local pride and that access to the World Heritage Site enhances national, regional and local political support, and can become a center of nationalism through the promotion of identity which leads to increase the interest of the local population in the city that has entered the World Heritage List [9,15,16].

Previous studies also indicate that the designation of a World Heritage Site could enhance the relationship between the various agencies with siterelated interests [9].

The designation of World Heritage sites in both developing and developed countries is a double-edged sword, as previous studies have found positive and negative impacts that have been directly or indirectly created by the designation of World Heritage sites and their connection with local communities [9].

Local Community Perceptions to the World Heritage Site

The community can be defined as a group of people who share a geographical area and are associated with a common culture, share values, race and social class. These societies are therefore called local communities. They have significant overlap, effect and influence on tourism development by setting a world heritage site. These community formations have important roles in local tourism and management of World Heritage sites, through community participation and complementarity of interests between local and international agencies to maintain the prestige of these heritage sites and its emergence as attractions [9].

Community perspectives are the key element in identifying, measuring and analyzing the variables of tourism development by setting a World Heritage site. The examination of the attitudes of the local population is important in the design of local tourism, planning and management as a response to tourism development and determining the extent of public support for these processes. Useful evidence to predict what will happen later in this context, and that is known as host perception of sociocultural impacts [9,24,25].

The local population has a positive view of tourism because of its potential to create jobs, generate increased incomes and strengthen the infrastructure of the community. On the other hand, their views may be negative because of social cultures and environmental costs, balancing these two sides based on benefits and costs [9,25-27].

Previous studies have found that the most prominent example of factors influencing the view of local people on World Heritage sites is their place of residence and the level of contact with tourists. For example, in some cases where people live near tourist centers, the views are positive compared to those who live far from the area near the tourist centers, and some cases find the opposite, and previous studies have found that the most sought after is the economic dependence on tourism and economic renaissance [9].

Previous studies have suggested that local people can view the status of the World Heritage Site as a disturbance that can disrupt the tranquility of their past lives. These problems can be avoided by combining the restriction of the number of forced visitors and the education and education of visitors on how to deal with World Heritage sites [9,16].

Tourist’s Perceptions of World Heritage Site and its Designation

Emphasis must be placed on the perceptions, meanings and perceptions of visitors associated with the designation of the World Heritage Site, to know their preferences and needs, and thus go further by developing and developing tourism and bringing economic benefits to the country and stakeholders [28].

Several previous studies have pointed out that heritage from the point of view of visitors is not required to be seen as ancient, as important as culture and human values. It must also be compatible with postmodernism, which considers tourism as a personal concept and must be compatible with the environment where attitudes towards heritage and landscape are derived from the system of cultural values of visitors [28-30].

In addition, some of the effects of recruitment on visitors and their views may have a negative effect or do not affect at all the intention to visit the World Heritage Site. Specifically, the results of previous studies indicate that the site listed in the World Heritage List is more crowded and expensive than other historical sites. Although its place in the list of World Heritage sites is only a sign of the importance and originality of the displayed heritage [28]. It seems that the site should be considered by visitors as suitable for human heritage in order to be perceived as a world heritage. However, it should be noted that people's perception of the site is part of human heritage cannot be found in the list of UNESCO criteria for the selection of sites to be nominated [3]. Integrating public perceptions of visitors makes recruitment a process of empowerment and raises the credibility of WHS as a brand name [28-30].

Discussion and Conclusion

The designation of an important arterial city such as the city of Salt in Jordan as a World Heritage site has many positive and negative impacts in the local communities in a number of economic, social, behavioral and political aspects. There are three main factors affecting local communities starting with the size and pace of tourism development before and after the designation as a heritage site the conditions and restrictions imposed on communities and the increase in tourism represented by an increase in the number of international and domestic tourists through rapid tourism.

These factors lead to many impacts that are directly or indirectly related to the local community in that local tourism and governments are fragile and poor in supporting such trends towards designation as a World Heritage Site. This leads to intervention by many international agencies that have positive impacts and at the same time negative to the local community.

Since the nomination of the City of Salt in Jordan as a site of the World Heritage and the hopes were already built to include the city in the list, plans must be made to preserve the city's heritage and mitigate the impact of increasing tourism on the physical and cultural environment of the city and minimizing the negative effects that can happen to the community if it listed as a World Heritage Site.

Development of tourism development plans must compatible with World Heritage sites to increase the positive effects of recruitment, motivating the local public to support these plans through advertisements and advertisements, clarifying positive impacts, and educating the community towards how to behave with World Heritage sites.

Tourism Development by Designation of a World Heritage Site

The focus on the development of tourism and the introduction of Salt for the nomination of the World Heritage List are two sides of the same coin, aimed at tourism development in the region of Salt return the economic benefit of the country. A series of tourism development projects were carried out in the historical city of Salt in Jordan, which began in the 1990s. These projects focus on the development of tourism, leading to superficial treatments that reflect the distinctive nature of the city's morphology and the productive relationship between architectural elements and cultural, economic and political processes [22].

As tourism in the world's largest and fastest-growing industry, one of the key objectives of World Heritage Site Management is to manage tourism and manage the site through sustainable tourism so that the best balance is achieved between the two sides. World Heritage sites are therefore a center for attracting tourists. The World Heritage Sites guidelines outline cultural tourism policies that can assist in the development of tourism at the country and location level. [2]. Tourism is a key point of discussion at most workshops. The World Heritage Center is involved in a number of tourism-related activities including undertaking tasks to study tourism development projects that affect the values listed on the site [2].

Improving the local tourism development plan

World Heritage Site Management focuses on heritage tourism because it is a wide category that embraces both ecotourism and cultural tourism, with a focus on natural and cultural conservation in the local tourism development plan [2].

There is a close coexistence between heritage and tourism and this is not new, so that the desire to preserve and desire to visit archaeological sites is always a mutual incentive between the history of preservation of heritage and tourism movement, which necessarily means a harmonious relationship between conservation and the functions of local and global tourism development as a state of world heritage site [12].

All World Heritage sites have a special commitment to take the initiative, to demonstrate themselves as global models in the proper management of cultural sites for tourism [12]. Identifying tourist areas to use the old traditional structures as cultural resources to increase revenues and balance through access fees, which become a major source of income used to preserve heritage resources in local tourism development plan [13].

Salt city was taken in Jordan as a case study, in which it was concluded how the community could refuse conservation efforts, especially when details of social, cultural, political and economic identity were not considered. According to the results, these historical characteristics contribute to the formation of the distinctive urban form of the city. As such, the rehabilitation of Salt has been transformed into surface beautification and surface treatments that give priority to a quick visual experience for tourists and fail to address the essential aspects of rehabilitating the historic urban landscape [22].

The three tourism development projects for historical urban scenes in Salt claim their special interest in the development and marketing of a new tourist product which is commodization and the provision of infrastructure and tourism services. In fact, all planning documents for these projects refer to the historic urban landscape as a "product" rather than a "city" where JICA reports that the project seeks "to create a completely new tourist product from a neglected urban resource, namely cultural, historical and folkloric life [22].

Al-Salt City as a World Heritage Site

The city of Salt, as a well-known Jordanian city, deserves the efforts it has devoted to its inclusion in the list of World heritage sites, due to their urban, heritage and natural qualifications, Salt has entered the list of World Heritage sites through the second and third criteria as explained earlier in the paper. The designation of the World Heritage Sites in the City of Salt is a two-edged sword, where positive and negative impacts are expected in a number of economic, social, political and behavioral aspects to be felt directly or indirectly through the designation of World Heritage sites and their relationship to local communities.

Certainly, to adopt this study when assessing the impact of the designation of a World Heritage site in the heart of the city of Salt on the community in deductive methods and independence and the combination of qualitative and quantitative research. It will rely on measuring the views of the local community through the impacts of a World Heritage site as a reflection of the extent to which benefits are achieved through positive effects or the prediction of damage and effects to an attempt to avoid them. Salt City has already applied for inclusion in the World Heritage Sites List on more than one stage.

As mentioned in this paper, the positive or negative impacts expected to occur in the city of Salt when it is designated as a World Heritage site that may be reflected on the local community revolve around three changes, economic, social, behavioral, and political changes.

The economic changes mentioned earlier in this paper may be positive or negative. The positive economic changes that are expected to occur and their impact on the local community in the city of Salt when its included in the list of World Heritage sites are focused on creating new jobs for the local population, Improving the infrastructure of the city through international and collective assistance, which will positively impact the local community, political and financial support, improve conservation and management of visitors, and improving the city's destination image, or be as negative as the dominance of the tourism industry supported by the Foreign agencies, lack of government supporting, and commodization.

The designation of World Heritage sites and the World Heritage Site brand may stimulate local products and trade but may be negative on the other hand, such as changes such as degradation and marketing resulting from enhanced site promotion through the World Heritage List.

Social changes revolve around many effects such as the relocation of many locals from their original place, causing many social problems as gentrification, the possibility of their daily lives becoming uncomfortable as a result of the development of heritage tourism in the city because of its designation as a World Heritage Site. Local people's relations with their livelihoods by imposing too many restrictions on them to meet the needs of tourists, affecting the lifestyles of the local community. And local residents may be separated with limited access to the heritage of their city.

Behavioral changes are centered on the values and behaviors that change throughout the community where the designation of the World Heritage Site can promote local identity, thus uniting the community spirit and increasing local pride. Access to the World Heritage Site enhances nationalism, regional and local political support and can become a center of national through the promotion of identity, leading to increased interest of the local population in the city that entered the World Heritage List, changing their attitude and behavior and how they deal with their city.

As for the political aspect, the appointment of the city of Salt as a World Heritage Site is expected to enhance the relationship between the different agencies with local and international interests. It will increase national support for the region and will open new horizons for the city by highlighting and developing it economically through tourism development, which is included in the list of World Heritage sites, which will affect the political aspect directly. Through my reading of the studies and projects that have been conducted on the development of the Salt area to promote tourism development and support the city to enter the World Heritage List such as JAICA, it is that tourism is first and foremost, which is reflected in the policies and strategies that concern the visual experience of tourists at the expense of the basic aspects of urbanization which focuses on the needs of the local community in the city.


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