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Journal of Oncology Translational Research

ISSN: 2476-2261

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 5, Issue 1 (2019)

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Effect of Genomic Instability and Mutations on the Signalling Pathways in Colon Cancer Cells

    Miao Cui, Fei Ye, Kaijun Huang, Liang , Zhiqing , Yuan , Yulan , Bo Jiang and David Zhang

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in about 15% of colorectal cancers and plays critical roles in the development and progression of these cancers. Several clinical studies showed that MSI colon cancer has a more favorable prognosis and is less prone to lymph node and distance metastasis. Furthermore, the MSI phenotype may also are expecting the response to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan. Recent gene expression research discovered alteration of the apoptotic and immune response pathways in MSI cells. However, the role of these pathways inside the carcinogenesis of CRC and the interaction of those protein biomarkers in MSI CRC cells stay to be determined. The goal of this have a look at is to decide the global effect of microsatellite instability on the signalling pathways and network in colon cancer cells to find out the protein biomarker. We profiled the expression and phosphorylation of one hundred ten proteins in six colon most cancers mobile lines by means of using Protein Pathway Array. The pathways and network constituted by using these proteins had been identified by means of using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Our outcomes showed that 25 proteins and phosphoproteins change more than 1.5-fold among MSI and microsatellite stable (MSS) cells. Sixteen major pathways have been affected in MSI cells, along with p53 and 14-3-3β pathways, with p53 and HGF being the most essential pathways. Finally, although the EGFR/K-RAS/MEK pathway was not affected in MSI cells, collateral pathways such as the p70S6K and p90RSK pathways were activated in MSI cells. Thus, suppression of the p53 pathway and activation of the HGF pathway in MSI cells may be critical in the tumorgenesis of MSI colorectal cancer.
    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Nanogel For Breast Cancer Treatment

    Masood F

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women globally and is a main reason of mortality, thus requiring more therapeutic advancements. The epirubcin (EPI) is an anthracycline. However, the dose-related cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and myelosuppression are main problem associated with the use of available formulation of EPI. The poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is considered as an ideal drug carrier due to its non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The blank and EPI loaded PHBV nanoparticles decorated with folic acid and polyethylene glycol were by prepared by nanoprecipitation method. Temperature sensitive hydrogel was prepared by addition of β-glycerophosphate disodium salt (β-GP) solution to chitosan (CS) solution. The CS/GP hydrogel demonstrated a rapid sol-to-gel transition at 37°C. The addition of folate grafted blank and drug loaded nanoparticles did not alter the gelation time of the resulting nanogels. The drug loading efficiency of EPI/FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel was found to be 45.23%. About 60% of total encapsulated drug was released at pH 4 from EPI/FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel during in-vitro release study. Blank FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel did not affect the % viability of MCF7 breast cancer cell line, thus demonstrating their non-toxicity and biocompatibility. The EPI/FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of cancer cells in comparison to equivalent amount of free drug.
    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Persisting Challenges in Prevention, Management and Prediction of Prognosis in Cervical Cancer

    S. Chhabra

    Introduction: It is possible to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer by appropriate and timely therapy. But it continues to be a major contributor of cancer related deaths globally because of failure in prevention, early detection and timely, appropriate therapy.
    Objectives: Objective was to collect information about persisting challenges in management, prevention, prediction of prognosis of cervical cancer.
    Methodology: A Simple review was done by using Up-to-date, ERMED CONSORTIUM, Cochrane Library, Delnet, MedIND to get information from available studies and reviews related to prevention, management, prediction of prognosis in cervical cancer and personal experiences were added.
    Results: Usually, management of cervical cancer is as per age, parity, stage of cancer, associated disorders. It may be conservative or aggressive multimodality therapy. However after planned therapy outcome is not always as per expectations. Answers need research. Nearly 20% of women with cervical cancer die within the first year of diagnosis. Research continues about factors which affect outcome and recurrence after surgery, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, and differences in efficacy of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy. Despite significant developments in management, results seem to be far from optimal. Over years there has been no demonstrable reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer and deaths due to cervical cancer. More than 50% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer are younger than 50 years, so the quality of life is becoming a challenge. Sometimes extensive surgeries like complete or anterior or posterior exenteration might give satisfaction to treating surgeon but what matters is survival with quality. It is not possible to predict the prognosis and know the best therapy for recurrent disease. In developing countries lack of awareness about prevention, geographical, economic inaccessibility, poor quality services, lack of support from families are barriers to early diagnosis and also safe therapy. A lot of more research seems to be necessary for the best therapy.
    Conclusion: In spite of being almost preventable cancer mortality due to cervical cancer continues to be high. At present, it is mostly not possible to predict prognosis. Appropriate management needs more research and a lot needs to be researched about prognosis too.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    The Role of 18-FDG PET/CT Metabolic Parameters in Predicting Prognosis in Advanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Esat Namal and Refik Bilgin

    Objective: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is the second most frequently encountered primary tumor of the liver after hepatocellular carcinoma. In patients who do not have surgical or other local treatment options, systemic chemotherapy is the standard treatment. However, prognostic factors are not clear for patients with advanced disease who do not have the ability to undergo a surgical operation. In many tumors, there are studies demonstrating the pretreatment effect of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) metabolic parameters on the prognosis. However, there are a small number of studies that research the effect of FDG-PET metabolic parameters on the prognosis in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We aimed to investigate the relationship between FDGPET metabolic parameters and survival in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
    Methods: The medical records of 50 advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients from Istanbul Bilim University Medical Oncology Clinic between 2012 and 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. The relationship between patient survival, demographic characteristics and FDG-PET metabolic parameters (SUVmax, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis) was analyzed.
    Results: Each unit of increase in metabolic tumor volume increases the risk of death by 1.0057 times, and each unit of increase in total lesion glycolysis increases the risk of death by 1.0034 times. The Cox regression model was found to be significant for metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis values but not for SUVmax values.
    Conclusion: FDG-PET metabolic parameters, such as metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis, contribute to the prognosis, and routine measurement of these parameters will be beneficial.

    Volume 4, Issue 2 (2018)

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Disaccharide Mimetics as Drugs Against Cancer and Epitopes for Anti-Cancer Vaccine Candidates

      Pierre Vogel

      Cancer could be a cluster of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or unfold to different elements of the body. This distinction with benign tumors, that don't unfold. Potential signs and symptoms embody a lump, abnormal hemorrhage, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and an amendment in internal organ movements. Over two hundred forms of cancers have an effect on humans. Usually cancer leads to uncommon, uncontrollable division and different impairment that may be fatal. Some forms of cancer cause speedy cell growth, whereas others cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate. Certain cancers end in visible growths referred to as tumors, whereas others, like leukemia, do not. Most of the body??s cells have specific functions and glued lifespans. Whereas it's going to sound sort of a dangerous factor, death is an element of a natural and helpful development referred to as cascade-mediated cell death. A cell receives directions to die so the body will replace it with a more modern cell that functions higher. Cancerous cells lack the elements that instruct them to prevent dividing and to die. As a result, they build up within the body, victimization chemical element and nutrients that may typically nourish different cells. Cancerous cells will kind tumors, impair the system and cause different changes that forestall the body from functioning frequently.
      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Rationale for Clinical Use of Drugs in Prostate Cancer Patients

      S. Kushnow

      The absence of curative therapies for advanced or recurrent forms of prostate cancer mandates continued development of novel, more effective treatment regimens. Due to recent advances in basic and translational research, therapeutic vaccines and monoclonal antibody-based therapies are steadily gaining ground as promising treatment modalities against prostate cancer. Several immunotherapeutic products have recently been investigated in later-phase trials and have reported evidence for clinical benefit while maintaining an excellent quality of life for participants. The cumulative clinical results available to date indicate that immune-based therapies will likely play a role in the treatment of patients with prostate and other malignancies. The objective of this article is to increase awareness of contemporary immunologic therapies and clinical trials of new biologic reagents against prostate cancer. We also seek to encourage urologists to actively participate in clinical trials and evaluate the potential of immunotherapeutic drugs for impacting standards of care. Descriptions of the common styles of treatments used for glandular cancer unit listed below. Your care arranges could boot embody treatment for symptoms and aspect effects, a really necessary a section of cancer care. Treatment selections and proposals rely upon several factors, beside the type and stage of cancer, possible aspect effects, and additionally the patient??s preferences and overall health. Cancer treatment can have an impression on older adults in many ways in which. Loads of information on the precise effects of surgery, therapy, and medical care on older patients is found throughout this text in another section of this internet site. Because most prostate cancers unit found at intervals the first stages once they unit growing slowly, you mostly do not have to be compelled to rush to create treatment picks. Throughout now, it is important to talk at the side of your doctor relating to the risks and benefits of all of your treatment selections and once treatment need to begin. This discussion need to boot address this state of the cancer. If glandular cancer is in associate early stage, is growing slowly, and treating the cancer would cause loads of problems than the wellness itself, a doctor might recommend active police investigation or watchful waiting.

      Volume 7, Issue 3 (2021)

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        The perioperative window presents a long overlooked but important opportunity to prevent relapses in breast and perhaps other cancers

        Michael Retsky

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        My colleagues and I have been studying an unexpected bimodal relapse pattern in breast cancer. This project started in 1993 when data from Italy and UK showed
        that 50 to 80% of all relapses in patients treated only with surgery occurred in an early wave of relapses in the first 3 years post-surgery. We proposed a reasonable
        explanation. It appears that the surgery to remove a primary tumor causes systemic inflammation for a week. During that time, dormant single malignant cells
        and avascular deposits escape from dormancy and appear as relapses within 3 years. The multi-national authors of our reports include medical oncologists,
        surgeons, anesthesiologists, physicists, and other scientists from several fields. A potential solution seems to exist based on our analysis. That therapy is the
        common inexpensive analgesic ketorolac administered as IV at the time of surgery and perhaps as oral drug for a few days after surgery. We edited a book and
        published a number of papers including one recently. Two animal models support our findings. Another paper suggests a way to prevent some late relapses and
        a retrospective clinical trial was reported.

        Short Communication Pages: 2 - 2

        Treatment of COVID-19 by controlling the activity of the Nuclear Factor-Kappa B and stopping the transcription of the virus within one hour

        Mahmoud Saad Mohamed Elkhodary

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        Heavy infection of the virus leads to overproduction of cytokines. The overproduction of cytokine (cytokines storms) is responsible for the critical cases and deaths
        of COVID-19. The nuclear factor kappa-B stimulates the expression of the genes, which are responsible for cytokines storm and RNA transcription. The COVID-19
        and all RNA viruses can be controlled by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B, which is controlled by inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and inhibitor kappa-B kinase
        enzyme.

        Short Communication Pages: 3 - 3

        Diagnostic Pathology by use of Manual Liquid based Cytology (MLBC) in LMIC

        Nandini N. M

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        Liquid based cytology (LBC) is a procedure wherein cells are spread in a monolayer with a clean background. It is usually automated, semi-automated and manual
        method. Manual liquid based cytology (MLBC) is an indigenous, cost effective method of cytology which we have used in our setup of low middle income group
        country (LMIC). Also it helps us to use the residual sample for study of ancillary techniques like cell block (CB), immunocytochemistry, ICC and IHC on MLB and
        CB respectively. Molecular tests like HPV can also be performed.
        Aim of the study: to study the utility of MLBC in cervical, breast and thyroid lesions. To use ancillary techniques like CB and Molecular techniques like PCR to
        improve diagnosis by use of ICC or IHC wherever possible. MLBC was done by using an in house method by use of polymer solution. The systems studied were
        pap smear screening for cervical lesions, breast, and thyroid. The study was conducted over a period of 5 years till 2020, covering each aspect of MLBC in step
        wise manner. ICC was conducted on both cervix (p16marker) and breast (ER).IHC was done on CB for cervix (p16, ki67) and breast (ER, PR, HER2).
        The results for all the three systems showed good results giving a better diagnostic accuracy of non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions. MLBC is a complimentary
        test for routine screening procedure like pap smear screening and FNAC of breast and thyroid. It helps to give a better diagnosis as it helps to remove obscuring
        factors like blood and inflammatory cells.

        Short Communication Pages: 4 - 4

        Analysis of FNA findings of Salivary gland lesions using Milan System of Reporting salivary gland cytopathology(MSRSGC) in a tertiary care institute in South India

        Rohit Kotipalli and Nandini.N.M

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        Aims and Objectives – The Milan System for reporting Salivary Gland Cytopathology is a internationally accepted reporting system for preoperative diagnosis and
        management of salivary gland lesions. The MSRSGC has the following 6 diagnostic categories: 1) Nondiagnostic, 2) Non-neoplastic, 3) Atypia of undetermined
        significance, 4) Neoplasm (further divided as benign and salivary gland neoplasm of uncertain malignant potential), 5) Suspicious for malignancy, and 6) malignant.
        The aim of the study is to analyse various salivary gland lesions and classify them as per MSRSGC. Correlation with histopathological findings will be done
        wherever possible.
        Methods - Retrospective study over a period of 2 years (2019 to 2020). The FNA aspirates of salivary gland lesions will be ennumerated and classified according
        to MSRSGC. Each case will be reviewed by two pathologists two avoid any inter observer bias.
        Results- All the cases studied over 2 years will be studied and subtyped and results will be analysed.
        Conclusion- MSRSGC will help classifying both neoplastic and non-neoplastic salivary gland lesions into accurate groups and helps to redefine the grey zone
        lesions on cytology. This will help the surgeons to better plan the further management.

        Short Communication Pages: 5 - 5

        Evaluation of significance of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in the diagnosis of lymphadenopathy

        Aarya Unnikrishnan and Nandini N M

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        Lymphadenopathy is one of the most frequently encountered clinical presentations and the underlying cause may vary from inflammatory conditions to malignant
        neoplasm. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a simple, reliable, economical and minimally invasive procedure preferred in diagnosis of lymphadenopathy.
        The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of FNAC as a diagnostic tool in lymphadenopathy and correlate the FNAC findings with histopathological diagnosis
        in cases possible. A retrospective study of 125 cases of lymphadenopathy that had undergone FNAC was conducted between January 2020 to December 2020
        in the department of pathology, JSS Medical College, Mysore. Out of the 125 cases studied, Reactive lymphoid hyperplasia was the most common FNAC finding,
        i.e., 60 (48%) followed by Metastatic carcinoma in 28 cases (22.4%), Granulomatous lymphadenitis in 25 (20%), Lymphoproliferative disorder in 5 (4%), Acute
        suppurative lesion in 4 (3.2%), HIV lymphadenopathy in 2 (1.6%), and Non-specific lymphadenitis in 1 (0.8%) case.
        FNAC is a simple, inexpensive, rapid and reliable diagnostic tool in the investigation of Lymphadenopathy. It helps in differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic
        conditions and thus providing means for further management.

        Short Communication Pages: 6 - 6

        The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology and correlation with histopathological diagnosis

        Indrakshi Basak, Nandhini Manoli and Kaustav Mukherjee

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        The Bethesda system is a uniform reporting system for thyroid cytology that facilitates the clarity of communication among cytopathologists, radiologists and
        surgeons facilitating cytohistologic correlation for thyroid diseases. The aim of the study was to determine the correlation between the results of thyroid fine needle
        aspirations (FNAs) interpreted using the Bethesda system and final histopathological reports for neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. A retrospective study was
        performed to compare the cytology and histopathology results for patients with thyroid swelling/nodules in JSS Hospital, Mysuru. The final correlation of diagnoses
        between the two methods is reported.
        Reviewing the thyroid FNAs with the Bethesda system for reporting allows precise cytological diagnosis. It represents standardization and reproducibility in
        reporting thyroid cytology. Nature of the disease, experience of cytohistopathologists, and understanding of certain limitations determine its diagnostic utility.

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