Journal of Oncology Translational Research

ISSN: 2476-2261

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 5, Issue 1 (2019)

    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Effect of Genomic Instability and Mutations on the Signalling Pathways in Colon Cancer Cells

    Miao Cui, Fei Ye, Kaijun Huang, Liang , Zhiqing , Yuan , Yulan , Bo Jiang and David Zhang

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosed in the United States and the second leading cause of cancer death. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is present in about 15% of colorectal cancers and plays critical roles in the development and progression of these cancers. Several clinical studies showed that MSI colon cancer has a more favorable prognosis and is less prone to lymph node and distance metastasis. Furthermore, the MSI phenotype may also are expecting the response to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irinotecan. Recent gene expression research discovered alteration of the apoptotic and immune response pathways in MSI cells. However, the role of these pathways inside the carcinogenesis of CRC and the interaction of those protein biomarkers in MSI CRC cells stay to be determined. The goal of this have a look at is to decide the global effect of microsatellite instability on the signalling pathways and network in colon cancer cells to find out the protein biomarker. We profiled the expression and phosphorylation of one hundred ten proteins in six colon most cancers mobile lines by means of using Protein Pathway Array. The pathways and network constituted by using these proteins had been identified by means of using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Our outcomes showed that 25 proteins and phosphoproteins change more than 1.5-fold among MSI and microsatellite stable (MSS) cells. Sixteen major pathways have been affected in MSI cells, along with p53 and 14-3-3β pathways, with p53 and HGF being the most essential pathways. Finally, although the EGFR/K-RAS/MEK pathway was not affected in MSI cells, collateral pathways such as the p70S6K and p90RSK pathways were activated in MSI cells. Thus, suppression of the p53 pathway and activation of the HGF pathway in MSI cells may be critical in the tumorgenesis of MSI colorectal cancer.
    Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

    Nanogel For Breast Cancer Treatment

    Masood F

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women globally and is a main reason of mortality, thus requiring more therapeutic advancements. The epirubcin (EPI) is an anthracycline. However, the dose-related cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and myelosuppression are main problem associated with the use of available formulation of EPI. The poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) is considered as an ideal drug carrier due to its non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The blank and EPI loaded PHBV nanoparticles decorated with folic acid and polyethylene glycol were by prepared by nanoprecipitation method. Temperature sensitive hydrogel was prepared by addition of β-glycerophosphate disodium salt (β-GP) solution to chitosan (CS) solution. The CS/GP hydrogel demonstrated a rapid sol-to-gel transition at 37°C. The addition of folate grafted blank and drug loaded nanoparticles did not alter the gelation time of the resulting nanogels. The drug loading efficiency of EPI/FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel was found to be 45.23%. About 60% of total encapsulated drug was released at pH 4 from EPI/FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel during in-vitro release study. Blank FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel did not affect the % viability of MCF7 breast cancer cell line, thus demonstrating their non-toxicity and biocompatibility. The EPI/FA-PEG-PHBV/CS nanogel significantly inhibited the viability and proliferation of cancer cells in comparison to equivalent amount of free drug.
    Review Article Pages: 1 - 5

    Persisting Challenges in Prevention, Management and Prediction of Prognosis in Cervical Cancer

    S. Chhabra

    Introduction: It is possible to prevent mortality due to cervical cancer by appropriate and timely therapy. But it continues to be a major contributor of cancer related deaths globally because of failure in prevention, early detection and timely, appropriate therapy.
    Objectives: Objective was to collect information about persisting challenges in management, prevention, prediction of prognosis of cervical cancer.
    Methodology: A Simple review was done by using Up-to-date, ERMED CONSORTIUM, Cochrane Library, Delnet, MedIND to get information from available studies and reviews related to prevention, management, prediction of prognosis in cervical cancer and personal experiences were added.
    Results: Usually, management of cervical cancer is as per age, parity, stage of cancer, associated disorders. It may be conservative or aggressive multimodality therapy. However after planned therapy outcome is not always as per expectations. Answers need research. Nearly 20% of women with cervical cancer die within the first year of diagnosis. Research continues about factors which affect outcome and recurrence after surgery, radiotherapy, chemoradiotherapy, and differences in efficacy of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy. Despite significant developments in management, results seem to be far from optimal. Over years there has been no demonstrable reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer and deaths due to cervical cancer. More than 50% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer are younger than 50 years, so the quality of life is becoming a challenge. Sometimes extensive surgeries like complete or anterior or posterior exenteration might give satisfaction to treating surgeon but what matters is survival with quality. It is not possible to predict the prognosis and know the best therapy for recurrent disease. In developing countries lack of awareness about prevention, geographical, economic inaccessibility, poor quality services, lack of support from families are barriers to early diagnosis and also safe therapy. A lot of more research seems to be necessary for the best therapy.
    Conclusion: In spite of being almost preventable cancer mortality due to cervical cancer continues to be high. At present, it is mostly not possible to predict prognosis. Appropriate management needs more research and a lot needs to be researched about prognosis too.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

    The Role of 18-FDG PET/CT Metabolic Parameters in Predicting Prognosis in Advanced Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    Esat Namal and Refik Bilgin

    Objective: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is the second most frequently encountered primary tumor of the liver after hepatocellular carcinoma. In patients who do not have surgical or other local treatment options, systemic chemotherapy is the standard treatment. However, prognostic factors are not clear for patients with advanced disease who do not have the ability to undergo a surgical operation. In many tumors, there are studies demonstrating the pretreatment effect of positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) metabolic parameters on the prognosis. However, there are a small number of studies that research the effect of FDG-PET metabolic parameters on the prognosis in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. We aimed to investigate the relationship between FDGPET metabolic parameters and survival in advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
    Methods: The medical records of 50 advanced intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients from Istanbul Bilim University Medical Oncology Clinic between 2012 and 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. The relationship between patient survival, demographic characteristics and FDG-PET metabolic parameters (SUVmax, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis) was analyzed.
    Results: Each unit of increase in metabolic tumor volume increases the risk of death by 1.0057 times, and each unit of increase in total lesion glycolysis increases the risk of death by 1.0034 times. The Cox regression model was found to be significant for metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis values but not for SUVmax values.
    Conclusion: FDG-PET metabolic parameters, such as metabolic tumor volume and total lesion glycolysis, contribute to the prognosis, and routine measurement of these parameters will be beneficial.

    Volume 4, Issue 2 (2018)

      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

      Disaccharide Mimetics as Drugs Against Cancer and Epitopes for Anti-Cancer Vaccine Candidates

      Pierre Vogel

      Cancer could be a cluster of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or unfold to different elements of the body. This distinction with benign tumors, that don't unfold. Potential signs and symptoms embody a lump, abnormal hemorrhage, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss, and an amendment in internal organ movements. Over two hundred forms of cancers have an effect on humans. Usually cancer leads to uncommon, uncontrollable division and different impairment that may be fatal. Some forms of cancer cause speedy cell growth, whereas others cause cells to grow and divide at a slower rate. Certain cancers end in visible growths referred to as tumors, whereas others, like leukemia, do not. Most of the body??s cells have specific functions and glued lifespans. Whereas it's going to sound sort of a dangerous factor, death is an element of a natural and helpful development referred to as cascade-mediated cell death. A cell receives directions to die so the body will replace it with a more modern cell that functions higher. Cancerous cells lack the elements that instruct them to prevent dividing and to die. As a result, they build up within the body, victimization chemical element and nutrients that may typically nourish different cells. Cancerous cells will kind tumors, impair the system and cause different changes that forestall the body from functioning frequently.
      Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

      Rationale for Clinical Use of Drugs in Prostate Cancer Patients

      S. Kushnow

      The absence of curative therapies for advanced or recurrent forms of prostate cancer mandates continued development of novel, more effective treatment regimens. Due to recent advances in basic and translational research, therapeutic vaccines and monoclonal antibody-based therapies are steadily gaining ground as promising treatment modalities against prostate cancer. Several immunotherapeutic products have recently been investigated in later-phase trials and have reported evidence for clinical benefit while maintaining an excellent quality of life for participants. The cumulative clinical results available to date indicate that immune-based therapies will likely play a role in the treatment of patients with prostate and other malignancies. The objective of this article is to increase awareness of contemporary immunologic therapies and clinical trials of new biologic reagents against prostate cancer. We also seek to encourage urologists to actively participate in clinical trials and evaluate the potential of immunotherapeutic drugs for impacting standards of care. Descriptions of the common styles of treatments used for glandular cancer unit listed below. Your care arranges could boot embody treatment for symptoms and aspect effects, a really necessary a section of cancer care. Treatment selections and proposals rely upon several factors, beside the type and stage of cancer, possible aspect effects, and additionally the patient??s preferences and overall health. Cancer treatment can have an impression on older adults in many ways in which. Loads of information on the precise effects of surgery, therapy, and medical care on older patients is found throughout this text in another section of this internet site. Because most prostate cancers unit found at intervals the first stages once they unit growing slowly, you mostly do not have to be compelled to rush to create treatment picks. Throughout now, it is important to talk at the side of your doctor relating to the risks and benefits of all of your treatment selections and once treatment need to begin. This discussion need to boot address this state of the cancer. If glandular cancer is in associate early stage, is growing slowly, and treating the cancer would cause loads of problems than the wellness itself, a doctor might recommend active police investigation or watchful waiting.

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