Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

ISSN: 2155-9929

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 11, Issue 4 (2020)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    miRNA as Potential Biomarkers for Cardiomyopathy

    Pritun Pradhan

    Heart failure implies that the heart works less effectively and not that the heart has quit working. Heart failure is caused by many conditions that damage the heart muscle. Coronary artery disease is where the arteries minimises the supply of oxygen and blood flow to the heart muscle. When the heart muscles are damaged from infections or alcohol or drug abuse rather than the minimal supply of oxygen or blood, is known as Cardiomyopathy.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    DNA Profiling in Identification of Mutational Signatures

    Pritisnigdha Pattnaik

    Cancer is designated as unhindered cell growth. Gene mutations can initiatemalignancy by increasing the rate of cell division or preventing usual controls on the system, like cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. As per earlier established studies, it is well known that the primary cause of cancer is some unwanted changes in the structure of DNA that are else considered as mutations. Mutations causing cancer can be due to a number of reasons including the lack of fidelity of the DNA replication machinery, disclosures to the mutagen, enzymatic DNA alteration, and faulty repair of DNA that consequences a certain fingerprint on DNA damage. Every living cell of the human body retains somatic mutations all through life. 

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Application of Biomarkers in Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Debasish Mohapatra

    The Biomarker is “a biological molecule contained in blood, other body fluids, or tissues, a sign of a normal or abnormal process, or of a disorder or disease," like cancer as described by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Usually biomarkers differentiate the healthy person from the patient with disease. The modifications may be caused by many factors, such as germ or somatic mutations, transcriptional changes, and post-translational changes. The spectrum of biomarkers is vast, including proteins (for instance, an enzyme or receptor), nucleic acids (e.g. micro-RNA or other non-encoding ARNs), antibodies and peptides, etc. A biomarker may also be a series of changes such as gene expression, proteomic signatures and metabolomics. Biomarker can be found in the bloodstream or excretions (stool, urine, sputum or nipple discharge) (wholly blood, serum, or plasma). 

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

    Development and Application of Molecular Markers: Past and Future

    Shalini Pal

    Biomarkers are regarded highly for their ability to discriminate between genotypes in fields of genetic science. The first molecules to differentiate between various plant types were secondary metabolites such as anthocyanin, phenolic etc. Nevertheless, their wide use was restricted by several factors including uncertainty and limited availability. For the short period prior to the development of more effective DNA markers, enzyme markers (allozymes and isozymes) gained significance but with the development of the powerful DNA markers that detect variation among individuals based on the polymorphism in their DNA they regained their status. Initial application of DNA marker technology began with the use of RFLP markers for the creation of the human genome's first molecular map.

    Case Report Pages: 1 - 6

    Serum miR-92a is Elevated in Children and Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Brendan Gongol, Fenqing Shang, Yingshuai Zhao, Weili Shi, Manli Cheng, John YJ. Shyy, Liuyi Wang, Atul Malhotra and Rakesh Bhattacharjee

    Background: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent condition that is associated with several comorbidities including cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies have revealed mixed results as to whether standard OSA therapy reverses CVD in adult patients. Thus, many advocate for earlier recognition of OSA induced CVD, as early as childhood, to prompt treatment antecedent to the onset of irreversible CVD. Here we investigated if the serum level of miR-92a, a known biomarker for CVD, can be used to identify patients with OSA in both children and adults. Methods: Consecutive snoring patients undergoing polysomnography were recruited for determination of circulating miR-92a, in addition to inflammatory and metabolic profiles. We assessed whether circulating miR-92a was associated with OSA severity. Results: Using two separate cohorts of adults (n=57) and children (n=13), we report a significant increase in the serum level of miR-92a in patients with severe OSA (p=0.021) and further demonstrate a significant correlation (Spearman rank correlation 0.308, p=0.010) with serum miR-92a levels and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), a primary measure of OSA severity. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that serum miR-92a levels were independently associated with AHI (ß=0.332, p=0.003), age (ß=0.394, p=0.002) and LDL cholesterol levels (ß=0.368, p=0.004). Conclusion: Our study is the first to establish that miR-92a is a useful biomarker for OSA severity in both children and adults. Given the canonical role of miR-92a on endothelial dysfunction, miR-92a may be useful to identify early onset CVD in OSA patients or stratify patient CVD risk to identify those that may benefit from earlier OSA treatment. 

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Biomarkers in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

    Bedadyuti Mohanty

    Prevention and early detection are key components of controlling the overburdened cases of mouth cancer. Mouth cancers are the 6th commonest cancer in the world with a high lethality rate. Even with technological advances happening around the globe, visual examination still remains the mostly practiced screening method for oral cancer. 

    Volume 11, Issue 5 (2020)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      The Significance of Biomarkers

      Subhadra Rani Jena

      The term “biomarker” can be described as biochemical, molecular, or cellular modifications that are detectable in organic media such as human cells, tissues, or fluids. Biomarkers comprise tools that can assist in predicting the root, diagnosis, succession, and effect of treatment of disease. Biomarkers can also mirror the complete range of ailment as of the initial appearances to the fatal stages. 

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Development of Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Diagnostic and Monitoring of Cancer

      Debasish Mohapatra

      Common cancers are currently being identified on a wide scale technique for screening such as CT scans for lung cancer, breast cancer mammograms, and ovarian ultrasounds. While advancement in imaging technology has made identification of small lesions more effective, these improvements have led to an increase in false positives and invasive procedures for definitive diagnosis. 

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Biomarkers in Identification of COVID-19

      Pritisnigdha Pattnaik

      Wuhan, the most populous city of central China, developed a mysterious circumstance of pneumonia on December 2019, a series of acute respiratory illnesses were reported. The scientists of China recognized this as a novel coronavirus on January 2020. On February 2020, the coronavirus disease spread globally. People infected with SARS-CoV-2, the cause ofCOVID-19, react contrarily. Some patients were asymptomatic, some require to be hospitalized and, for some, the disease became lethal. Hence, it is vital to establish a patient's state in an appropriate method. Biomarkers are quantitative measurements used clinically for many conditions reflecting pathological development.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      microRNAs as a Novel Biomarker for Diagnosis of Diabetes Mellitus

      Shalini Pal

      Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, according to the World Health Organization, is based on blood glucose levels in the fasted condition and the oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose levels above 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) in the fast state are known as diabetes and after an oral glucose tolerance test is above 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dl). Other serum parameters such as residual C-peptide or serum parameters such as glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may also help to diagnose diabetes mellitus.

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Tumour Necrosis Factor-? as a Biomarker in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

      Bedadyuti Mohanty

      Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are 95% contributor of all oral cavity carcinomas around the world.  Though the malignancy is prevalent, especially in developing, the attention regarding the diagnosis or treatment has not been satisfactory when compared to other malignancies like lung, breast, or colon cancer.

      Volume 11, Issue 6 (2020)

        Research Pages: 1 - 9

        Identification and Validation of Differentially Expressed Genes Via-s-vis Exploration of the Modular Pathways in Diseased Versus Healthy Nili Ravi Water Buffalo

        Priyabrata Behera, Simarjeet Kaur, Shiva R Sethi and Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay

        Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 3 groups of she-buffaloes (Tuberculosis, Metritis, and Healthy control) was sequenced by RNA-Seq (using Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform). The pre-processed reads, obtained from transcriptome sequencing, were aligned to the Bostaurus genome using the Hisat-2 program. Gene expression was studied using the String Tie program. A total of 31982 transcripts were identified. Comparisons of the entire 3 groups’ revealed 176 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in TB vs. healthy groups and 162 DEGs in metritis vs. healthy groups. Analysis of gene ontology and pathways (molecular function and biological processes) identified certain pathways like cytokine activity, Wnt signaling, PI3K-Akt signaling, MAPK signalling (between TB and healthy groups) and cAMP signaling, Wnt signaling, TGFbeta signaling, MAPK signaling, PI3K-Akt signaling, etc. between metritis-positive and healthy buffaloes. Network analysis identified the immunerelated genes contributing to the system biology related to the disease-resistance in Nili Ravi buffalo. Besides, five differentially expressed genes have been validated using SYBR-green chemistry of qPCR. In the future, these key genes could be studied in detail to explore their potential to be promising biomarkers for selecting breeding animals with higher tolerance against these economically devastating diseases.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

        CSF Lactate an Independent and Reliable Biomarker among the CSF Parameters to Differntiate Bacterial Meningitis from Aseptic Meningitis

        Karthika Remash, Ravi Raj, Gopala Krishna M. Pillai, Gireesh Kumar K.P., Lakshmi A, Atthulya Mangal

        Objective: To compare the mean values of CSF parameters (lactate, protein, sugar, ADA) and thereby distinguish between cases of bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in which 60 adult patients were included and CSF parameters (differential counts, protein, sugar, ADA, lactate) were in analyzed in 22 patients of bacterial meningitis and 38 patients of aseptic meningitis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Descriptive statistics are represented using frequencies and percentages. Analytical statistics were represented using Chi-square test for the comparison of categorical variables. The mean values were compared using independent t- test. Results: Among the other CSF parameters, the mean value of CSF lactate and CSF sugars were found to have significant difference (p-value 0.01) in bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis. With a cut off value of 3 mmol/l, CSF lactate was useful in differentiating bacterial meningitis from aseptic meningitis. However other parameters including CSF protein and CSF ADA did not show significant difference between bacterial meningitis including TBM and non-bacterial meningitis, whereas CSF lactate also showed significant difference in TBM and viral meningitis. It was also found out that mortality is proportionately increased with the increasing lactate levels. Conclusion: This study concludes that CSF lactate is an important, independent and reliable biomarker with a cut off value of 3mmol/L, to differentiate bacterial meningitis including TBM from nonbacterial meningitis. TBM and viral meningitis are difficult to differentiate due to their similar clinical features and lab parameters. In such cases, CSF lactate can be taken as a reliable differentiating marker. CSF lactate can be used when CSF gram stain and cultures are inconclusive and time consuming. Thus, helps in initiating early treatment and achieving better outcomes. 

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

        The Effects of Thymoquinone on Inhibiting the Expression of SENP1 Gene in the MCF-7 Cell Lines

        Neda Shaghaghi, Farzaneh Sabouni, Reza Mohammadzadeh and Maryam Kheyrollah

        SUMOylation, as post-translational modifications, plays essential roles in various biological functions including cell growth and migration, stress response, and tumorigenesis. In SUMOylation, SENP1 catalyzes the SUMO protein maturation to combine with target proteins. Breast cancer is a common malignancy in women and also SENP1 progression is high in this cancer. Thymoquinone is a biologically active substance and a secondary metabolite found in the black seed, and recent researches indicate antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and other important biological activities. The effects and mechanisms of Thymoquinone on SENP1 are not well studied. For this purpose, the first MCF-7 tumor cell line and normal MCF-10A cell line were cultured in normal conditions and then treated with specific doses of thymoquinone. The lethal activity was evaluated by MTT assay and exhibited that the toxicity of thymoquinone on MCF-7 cell line was higher than healthy cell and the intensity of its effect was different from MCF-10A cell. Then SENP1 gene expressions were measured. Gene expression changes in tumor cells were then compared with normal cells and it was found that thymoquinone was able to reduce SENP1 gene expression in the tumor cells. Then docking of Thymoquinone with SENP1 protein was performed. The amount of binding energy between Thymoquinone and protein SENP1 is -54 and with dimer of Thymoquinone is -80. Based on what researchers have concluded in this study, it is possible that the mentioned gene and SENP1 Protease can be considered as a candidate for breast cancer treatment and drug target. 

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 4

        Mucin Signature as a Tool to Predict Susceptibility to COVID-19

        Mukulika Bose, Bhaskar Mitra and Pinku Mukherjee

        The COVID-19 pandemic has played havoc on both the global health and economy. Permanent quarantine measures do not appear to be feasible due to obvious reasons. However, a molecular signature to differentiate between low-risk and high-risk individuals will be helpful to set better quarantine measures. Pathogens, including viruses of the upper respiratory tract utilize mucin proteins to enter into host cells. In this review, we highlight the importance of studying the glycome and mucin signature in predicting the susceptibility, progression and response to therapy in COVID-19 patients. Identifying the high-risk versus low-risk groups will help take better actions to save both the health system and economy. 

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

        A Significant Association of IL1R2 DraIII T/G Polymorphism with the Risk of Gall Bladder Cancer in Ethnic Kashmiri Population

        Malik Gawharul Haq, Sabzar A Malik, Imtiyaz A Bhat, Sadaf Ali, Arshad A Pandith, Omer J Shah and Zafar A Shah

        Background: Chronic inflammation is considered as an emerging area of research interest because of its cognize association with different organ cancers. Recent advances in cancer research have substantiated that targeting cytokines have a strong therapeutic potential in reducing the mortality of inflammation-related cancers. Gallbladder cancer (GBC) has been consistently associated with inflammation mostly due to presence of gallstones which prelude inflammatory response. The Interleukin-1 (IL1) gene cluster serves an important function of immunomodulation, thereby regulating interplay between inflammation and cancer. Studies on the association of IL1 polymorphisms with GS and GBC have shown drastic variations in different populations. Since no such study has been carried out in ethnic Kashmiri population which is known for high incidence of GS disease, we aimed to evaluate the possible role of pro-inflammatory IL1 family in the pathogenesis of GBC and GS disease. Methods: A total of 370 individuals (120 GBC, 120 GS and 130 healthy controls) were prospectively recruited. The study analyzed various polymorphisms of IL1 gene family to predict their association with GBC and gallstone disease. PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for genotyping and SPSS 23.0 software was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs). Tissuespecific expression of IL-1α was done by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and the data was analyzed by Graph Pad Prism version 5. Results: IL1R2 T/G DraIII 'GG' genotype (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.27-5.53, P=0.011) and 'G' allele (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.10-2.24, P=0.014) indicated a positive association with GBC. Two polymorphisms in the IL1 gene family (IL-1α +4845G/T and IL1R1Pst1C/T) were observed to be insignificant towards GBC in our study cohort. IL-1α mRNA expression did not differ between tumor and adjacent normal GB tissues. Above all none of the studied polymorphisms was significant towards gallstone disease. Conclusion:  We conclude that IL1R2 DraIII T/G SNP bears a significant association with GBC and could be an important etiological factor for GBC in our population. 

        Volume 11, Issue 7 (2020)

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Diagnosis of Type 2 Diabetes: Role of Biomarkers

          Pritisnigdha Pattnaik

          Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease related with uncertainties in carbohydrates, lipids and proteins metabolism. The prevalence of T2D, representing >90% of all cases of diabetes, are rapidly growing globally [1]. Therefore, diagnosis of individuals at high risk of developing diabetes is of high importance. High prevalence and increased incidence in T2D worldwide raise interest of discovery new molecular markers for diagnosis, prevention and development of T2D.

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

          Molecular Markers and its Applications in Plant Breeding

          Bedadyuti Mohanty

          Various biotic and abiotic factors cause different plant diseases and number of stresses leading to low crop productivity and huge yield losses thereby causing global food scarcity. Hence, sustainable crop development and improvement requires breeders to produce crops continuously with disease and pest resistance varieties and with other potentials such as stress tolerance, high nutritional value crop and better yield, etc. Though there have been many conventional strategies to improve breeding in crops (conventional breeding, gene bank, etc.), molecular marker technology have surpassed all these methods in terms of efficiency. 

          Mini Review Pages: 1 - 3

          Troponin: A Potential Biomarker for Myocardial Infraction

          Pritun Pradhan

          Although troponins, the calcium-regulatory protein for the calcium regulation of contractile function found in both skeletal and cardiovascular muscle, there are also isoforms of troponins which are expressed specifically in the heart. One of the best indicative tests; cardiac troponin (cTn) assays has been created by using these cardiac-restricted epitopes within these proteins. For the past decade, cTn has been viewed as the best markerfor acute myocardial necrosis: the indicator of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Myocardial infarction (MI) is supposedly the presence of myocardial necrosis along with myocardial ischemia. The early recognition of MI is necessary for administrating anti-thrombotic therapy to minimize myocardial damage and preserve cardiac function. Elevated troponin levels in the absence of acute coronary syndrome should incite an assessment for alternative, non-thrombotic mechanism of troponin increment and direct management at the underlying cause. This review describes the clinical utilization of troponinas a biomarker for AMI suspected patients. 

          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

          Microsatellite Markers for Improvement of Rice Blast Resistance

          Biswajit Lenka

          Rice blast, caused by the pathogen Pyricularia grisea, is the primary limiting biotic factor for rice production throughout the world. The use of blast resistant cultivars is the most effective and economical way to control the disease. Therefore continuous breeding efforts to develop novel disease resistant cultivars should be the top priority for rice breeding programs. One of the major challenges which breeders face during the development of resistant cultivars is the incorporation of disease resistance gene into the target cultivar. The integration of plant genomics and gene-based marker assisted selection (MAS) being particularly effective, is a powerful method for efficient selection. Pyramiding several major genes for resistance into the genetic background of the recipient parent has been made easier with the help of marker-assisted selection. 

          Short Communication Pages: 1 - 2

          Development of Blood-Based Biomarkers for Diagnostic and Monitoring of Alzheimer???s Disease

          Debasish Mohapatra

          Alzheimer's is the most prevalent form of age induced dementia in modern societies as a neurological disease. Dementia is a rising socio-economic and medical issue with increasing life expectancy. The effect of Alzheimer's disease, including age, sex (females are most likely affected), genetic factor, head injury and Down syndrome has been correlated with several factors. By 2050, the number of people 80 years of age or older would be projected at about 370 million in the world and 50% of people 85 years of age or older suffer from Alzheimer's disease. The disorder is distinguished by the buildup of extracellular amyloid β plaques, neurofibrillary tangles consisting of truncated and phosphorylated protein tau, dystrophic neurites, synapse and neuronal losses, and prominent Gliosis involving changes in morphology and function of astrocytes and microglia. 

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