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Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis

ISSN: 2161-0703

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 3 (2020)

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Microbiological Study on Nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii Infection with Molecular Characterization of Metallo Beta- Lactamases

    Radwan SM1*, Shabayek MS1, El-Damacy2 and Hassanin

    DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.308

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen which the World Health Organization̕ s considered number one critical priority pathogen. It has become a growing problem in hospitals as a predominant multi-drug resistant that left clinicians with limited treatment options. Its main mechanisms for β-lactam resistance are the production of carbapenems especially Amber class D β-lactamases followed by B β-lactamases. NDM-1 which is an example of the later poses a major health concern particularly in the light of its spread through population. To precede our study, 74 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were collected from hospital laboratories during the period from July 2017 till June 2018. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion method (KBDD) and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was detected using E-test method. CRAB ones were tested by both of Modified Hodge Test (MHT) and Imipenem EDTA Combined Disc Test (CDT) to detect metallo βeta-lactams (MBL) producers. Then existence of NDM-1 gene was further identified. All of the 74 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were found to be multi-drug resistant (MDR). 36 of them (48.65%) were resulted as carbapenem resistant and 27 (36.49%) were metallo βeta-lactams (MBL) producers. 12/27 (44.44%) MBL poses NDM-1 gene in the first detection procedure while the other negative 15 ones the percentage of NDM-1 was found to be 10/15 (66.67%) when using different primer. PCR products were then verified by DNA sequencing. The final consensus sequences were analyzed and submitted to NCBI GenBank data base, representing accession numbers are JF838352.1, MK682768.1 and MN251667.1. The alignments showed similarity ranged from 94%-96.4% amino acids identity. We concluded that detection of antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii revealed that multi-drug resistance arises dramatically due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics and the poor applying of infection control precautions. These results emphasize the importance of implementation and comply both of antibiotic and infection control policies.

    Short Communication Pages: 7 - 7

    Editorial Highlights on Medical Microbiology

    Ramana KV

    DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.309

    Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis commemorates its decade long service to the scientific community by consistently publishing peerreviewed articles and tracking the progress and significant advancements in the field of Microbiology. Ever since its inception in the year 2012, in addition to regular issue releases on a quarterly basis, this transdisciplinary journal is also releasing special issues and conference proceedings from time to time, thus comprehensively covering a wide range of topics and emerging challenges in Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. The journal focuses on application oriented research on Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. In this issue some of the recent and impactful research articles that were published by the journal will be discussed. 

    Short Communication Pages: 8 - 8

    Editorial Highlights on Medical Microbiology (Special Issue)

    Ramana KV

    DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.310

    This year, the Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis commemorates its decade long publication service in the field of Microbiology. With a successful International publications record, the journal has already begun compilation of the third issue in the 9th volume. In addition to the regular issues the journal has been publishing special issues, supplements and conference proceedings from time to time. In general, the journal covers all including Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. With good citation record, the journal is included in indexing databases conferring wide geographical outreach, such as Index Copernicus, Open J Gate, CAS Source Index along with simultaneous portproduction digital media promotion policy. Ever since its inception in the year 2012 the journal has been consistently producing quality articles sourced from all across the world. The journal holds impeccable record of regular bimonthly issue release frequency with publication time lines. 

    Short Communication Pages: 9 - 9

    Editorial Note for the Special Issue ???Pathogenesis and Epidemi-ology of Corona Virus???

    Kandi Venkat Ramana

    DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.311

    Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.

    Editorial Pages: 10 - 10

    Editorial on Medical Microbiology

    Faridi M

    DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.312

    Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis commemorates its decade long service to the scientific community by consistently publishing peer-reviewed articles and tracking the progress and significant advancements in the field of Microbiology. Ever since its inception in the year 2012, in addition to regular issue releases on a quarterly basis, this transdisciplinary journal is also releasing special issues and conference proceedings from time to time, thus comprehensively covering a wide range of topics and emerging challenges in Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. The journal focuses on application oriented research on Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. In this issue some of the recent and impactful research articles that were published by the journal will be discussed.

    49th World Congress on Microbiology | July 15-16, 2020 (2020)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Past Conference Editorial of Microbiology 2020

      Marina Sidorenko

      Conference Series LLC Ltd hosted the “Microbiology 2020”, during July 15-16, 2020, Webinar with the theme, “Scoping out Innovative Research in Microbiology in the Present era of COVID-19”, which was a great success. Eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions and organizations addressed the gathering with their resplendent presence. 


      We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference.

      Microbiology 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Microbiology. 

      Microbiology Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference.

      Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “Microbiology 2020”. 

      • Marina Sidorenko, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia
      • Helena Gutierrez Olivera, University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Brazil 

      Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate Microbiology 2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs and also the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC LTD thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of Microbiology.  

      Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “50th World Congress on Microbiology, which will be held during March 24-25, 2021 at London, UK. We cordially welcome all the eminent Microbiologists, Scientists, Research Students, Scholars, Industrial Professionals and Student Delegates from Microbiology, Biological Science and attention sectors to be a part of this prestigious conference with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.  

      Bookmark your dates for “Microbiology 2021, London” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 2

      Listeria monocytogenes under the influence of food plants

      Marina Sidorenko and Vladislav Sidorenko

      Listeria monocytogenes is the causative agent of human and animal listeriosis. It is known that the classical bacterial forms of Listeria, being saprophytes, have high stability in the external environment, they are able to reproduce in various environmental objects, including in soils and plants. It is known that plants can be a natural reservoir of pathogenic Listeria and a source of human infection. Volatile organic emissions of germinating seeds, due to the high penetrating ability in the soil, availability for assimilation, can be a source of carbon and energy for soil microorganisms. It is known that not all bacteria are capable of assimilating the volatile metabolites of germinating seeds, and the specificity of the action of volatile organic compounds depends on both the type of bacteria and the type of germinated seeds. Therefore, the volatile metabolites of germinating seeds of cultivated plants were studied, which are factors of transmission of L. monocytogenes - lettuce (Zactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays L.). As a result, it is proved that the volatile metabolites of germinating plant seeds stimulate the growth and reproduction of pathogenic listeria in soils. The specificity of the action of volatile organic compounds of plants on the reproduction of the studied bacteria is noted. The main volatile fraction that affects the growth and reproduction of L. monocytogenes is methanol, which bacteria use as their sole source of carbon and energy.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 3

      Inoculation methods for introducing the endophytic fungi Mucor nidicola in tomato plants, and its effect on promoting resistance to cadmium

      Helena Gutierrez Oliveira, Tiago Tognolli de Almeida, Maria Carolina Quecine-Verdi and João Lúcio Azevedo

      Soil pollution caused by heavy metals is a global concern that has been increasing due to industrial development and mining residues. Bioremediation is the use of living organisms to remove or neutralize pollutants from a contaminated site.  Among the possible strategies, phytoremediation is the direct use of green plants and their associated micro-organisms to stabilize or reduce contamination in soils. This study analyzed the inoculation efficiency of fungus Mucor nidicola in tomato Solanum lycopersicum and its role in plant resistance to heavy metals. The fungus tested was isolated from the roots of plants from a site contaminated with heavy metals and it showed good resistance to cadmiun when tested in vitro. First, we tested nine methodologies for the fungus inoculation on tomato plants. Then, the plant-fungus interaction was studied in the presence of cadmium to analyze the fungus as a plant resistance promoter. The inoculation techniques that applied short-time chemical scarification were not efficient and neither were the methodologies that placed a disk of the mycelium with the seed during the germination process. Spraying the plants with mycelium solution was also inefficient. The long-term chemical scarification and direct contact between seeds and sporum resulted in fungal inoculation, even though it occurred at a low frequency. The plant-fungus interaction test in presence of CdCl2 confirmed the negative effect of this compound on plant development, but there was no significant effect of fungus inoculation in terms of improving plant performance in such conditions. Further research on the improvement of the inoculation technique with M. nidicola on tomato or other species is of great importance to enable the development of new viable phytoremediation techniques.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 4 - 4

      Antimicrobial Efficacy of Selected Disinfectants in the Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Environments

      Hamza A. Aboelenin

      The validation of the disinfectants in the pharmaceutical industry environment is essential process to be sure of the disinfection process of it.

      The Aim of the study is to determine the efficacy of Dettol disinfectant in compare to the used disinfectants (chlorine – phenol – alcohol) on different surfaces (Epoxy – stainless steel – glass) in the production environment.

      Four concentration (5,2.5,1.25and.625 %) of Dettol was compared to chlorine 1% and phenol 5% and alcohol 70% in time intervals 5, 10,15and 30 minutes  and approached to Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa  ATCC 9027, Aspergillusniger ATCC 16404 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 using suspension test.

       Then the most significance concentration of Dettol and in the shortest contact time compared to the other disinfectants in the shortest contact time using surface test on different surfaces (Epoxy – stainless steel – glass) in the production environment.

      The efficacies calculated by log reductions are calculated according to the following equation: Log10 reduction (R) = log10 pre-value cfu/plate– log10 post value cfu/plate.

      A sample of four replicates were used per organism per concentration at different time intervals to estimate an overage change at log reduction equal 2 units with estimated standard deviation (SD)equal 0.5 for each sub group, using  α error equal 0.05 will provide a power of 20%. 

      The results elaborated that the most significance concentration of Dettol is 2.5% in contact time 5 minutes and chlorine 1% in contact time 10 min phenol5% in contact time 10 min alcohol 70%in contact time 10 min.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 5 - 5

      Mosquito-larvicidal activity of bacterial extracts produced by Colombian strains

      Agudelo-Restrepo Manuela, Quesada-Hernández Martha Lucia, Sanabria-Duran Edinson Yonny, Uribe-Soto Sandra Inés, Ortiz-Reyes Adriana1 and Romero-Tabarez Magally

      Mosquito-borne diseases have become a health problem due to their serious economic and social implications. Mosquitoes can transmit more than 30 viruses as dengue, zika, yellow fever and chikungunya. Dengue is one of the most common human diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. It is estimated that more than 2.5 billion people are at risk and 390 million infections occur annually in around 125 countries that are exposed due to their location in tropical and subtropical regions (Marques et al., 2017). In order to control mosquito populations various practices have been used in endemic areas, including the use of chemical insecticides, which has been one of the main strategies. However, the application of synthetic insecticides cause problems as development of resistance, adverse effects on beneficial organisms destroying the natural and fundamental balance of ecosystems, not to mention even the damage caused by environmental pollution.The aim of this study was to identify larvicidal activity of extracts produced by bacteria isolated from different sources in Colombia. A total of 105 extracts produced from the same number of bacteria were evaluated for their activity against larvae A. aegypti and A. albopictus using standard protocols. Six extracts showed relevant activity (more than 50% of mosquito larvae were killed after 48 hours), two of them showed to be actives against larvae of Aedes aegypti and four against larvae of Aedes albopictus. An extract produced by a Colombian strain of Bacillus atrophaeus was selected for further studies. In order to increase the production of active substances, different culture media were evaluated. A culture media containing glycerol as carbon source was selected. Bacterial extracts are a good source for the search of new strategies in the control of mosquitoes. Further studies to determine the compound responsible for the insecticidal activity are in progress.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 6 - 6

      Modulation of the immune response and infection pattern to Leishmania donovani in visceral leishmaniasis due to arsenic exposure: An in vitro study

      Shyam Narayan and Sanjay K. Chaturvedi

      The arsenic contamination of ground water in visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas in Bihar, India leads to human exposure through drinking water. Possibly, the consumed arsenic (As) accumulates in the tissues of VL patients, who subsequently internalize intracellular amastigotes to confer resistance against chemotherapy to the parasite, leading to modulation in the host’s immune response. This hypothesis appears to be consistent with the in vitro findings that in arsenic-exposed parasites, the mitochondrial membrane potential became depolarized, whereas the reduced thiol and lactate production was overexpressed with enhanced glucose consumption; therefore, the reduced thiol possibly supports an immunosuppressive state in the host cells. This observation was well supported by the down-regulated expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) with a suppressed anti-leishmanial function of macrophage (NO, ROS). In contrast, the pathophysiological mechanism of VL has received ample support by the promotion of Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) in the presence of arsenic-exposed Leishmania parasites (LdAS). Dysfunction of mitochondria and the overexpression of lactate production raise the possibility of the Warburg effect being operative through the up-regulation of glucose consumption by parasites to enhance the energy production, possibly augmenting virulence. Therefore, we surmise from our data that arsenic exposure to Leishmania donovani modulates the immune response and infection pattern by impairing parasite function, which may affect the anti-leishmanial effect in VL.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

      Behavior of Xanthomonas fragariae Dw in an inorganic medium enriched with N, P, or K

      Tormal Djassinra, Elhartiti Abla, Mammad Zineb and Ounine Khadija

      In this study, the behavior of Xanthomonas fragariae, angular leaf spot of strawberry agent, was followed in the AB medium, enriched with nitrogen, phosphorus or with potassium, and in the soil of the Mamora forest with 14% to 28% of humidity in function of these fertilizer elements. The obtained results have shown that Na2HPO4 and NH4Cl, used, 0.01 and 0.05 mol/l, respectively as a phosphorus and nitrogen source, have a significant effect on the survival of Xanthomonas fragariae. By contrast, KCl, used as a source of Potassium, has no significant effect on the number of culturable cells.

      The three sources used NPK, 14% and 28% showed a great influence on the number of culturable cells of Xanthomonas fragariae, either increasing or decreasing. Potassium, at 28 to 14% of humidity, inhibited the rate growth of Xanthomonas, while the phosphorus and nitrogen stimulated its growth, greater than 28% of humidity than 14%. Similarly the bacterial growth was not affected during the incorporation of NPK at different concentrations in the soil of Mamora.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 8 - 8

      High-Throughput Screening identifies novel small-molecule compounds that enhance aminoglycosides activity against bacteria

      Venice H.T. Iu and Richard Y.T. Kao

      Aminoglycosides is one of the oldest class of antibiotics. Its history started with the discovery of Streptomycin, the first-in-class antibiotic, by Selman Waksman in 1944. However, its usefulness was highly eroded by the emerging resitance in recent years. The conventional strategy of developing novel antibiotics leads to selection of resistant strains, rendering new drugs ineffectiveness. Thus, rejuvenating the therapeutic potential of existing antibiotics offers a rational yet novel strategy. Using a cell-based screen of 50,240 small-molecule compounds, we identified a potent compound with low cytotoxicity, SA-558, that potentiate gentamicin activity against Vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus Mu3. SA-558 potentiates activity of different members of antibiotics in the class of aminoglycosides, but not kasugamycin against S. aureus Mu3. The SA-558 gentamicin-potentiating activity is generally observed in gram-positive bacteria but not in gram-negative bacteria. Resistance towards SA-558 activity is difficult to arise. Here, we demonstrated that SA-558, a novel compound, is of high potential to rejuvenate the potency of aminoglycosides, one of the oldest class antibiotics, for clinical application.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 9 - 9

      Why W neurons decreases and C neurons increases in fever?

      K. M. Yacob

      As you aware, if temperature increases (Absence of fever) after 31 degree Celsius, Warm sensitive neurons increase their firing rate and inhibit Cold sensitive neurons as core temperature increases. As temperature drops, the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, reducing their inhibition, and Cold sensitive neurons which respond by increasing their firing rates.

      On the contrary to increase of temperature, in fever the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons decreases, the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons increases as core temperature increases. inhibit warm sensitive neurons. The temperature increasing and decreasing controlled by the brain. The firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons and Cold sensitive neurons also controlled by the brain.

      When the disease becomes threat to life or organs, blood circulation decreases. Temperature of fever will emerges to increase prevailing essential blood circulation.

      WBC and their products stimulate the brain to increase temperature by increasing the firing rate of Cold sensitive neurons and decreasing the firing rate of Warm sensitive neurons. And it acts as a protective covering of the body to sustain life.

      There is no way other than this for a sensible and discreet brain to increase temperature.

      If the aim of   Cold sensitive neurons increasing their firing rates in hypothermia is to increase temperature, then the aim of Cold sensitive neurons increasing their firing rates during fever is also to increase temperature.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 10 - 10

      Comparative genomics of E. coli isolated from adult and paediatric patients with inflammatory bowel disease and controls

      M Das Gupta, DM Gordon, R Hansen, GL Hold, P Pavli and CL O'Brien

      Several lines of evidence implicate bacteria in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Escherichia coli is one of the leading candidate triggers. Our aim was to identify genes of E. coli associated with IBD.This study involved whole genome comparisons of 179 E. coli strains, isolated from 64 Crohn’s disease (CD) patients, 18 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 19 controls. These isolates were obtained from different tissues and sources, such as aphthous ulcers, lymph nodes and intestinal mucosa. We used A5 MiSeq to assemble sequences, PROKKA for annotation, ROARY for pan-genome analyses, and SCOARY to assess phenotype-genotype relationships. We determined the serotype, sequence type (ST), virulence genes, plasmids, bacteriophage, CRISPRs, capsules, bacteriocins, and antibiotic resistance genes for each strain. CD-associated E. coli were phylogenetically diverse. The most abundant E. coli phylogroup was B2 and the most common ST was ST95. The E. coli UTI89 plasmid was significantly associated with paediatric CD isolates compared with controls. Based on total gene content, CD isolates were significantly associated with particular genes associated with adhesion, the toxin-antitoxin system, plasmid partitioning, conjugation transfer, and signal recognition when compared to controls.  Genes associated with adhesion and invasion and peroxide scavenging were significantly associated with lymph node E. coli isolates from CD patients. Our findings suggest that CD-associated E. coli are associated with genes involved in adhesion, and the lymph node strains have properties that allow them to survive intracellularly, within phagolysosomes. This study provides insights into the potential role of E. coli in the pathogenesis of IBD

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 11 - 11

      BioH2 production in a synthetic bacterial consortium: How QS molecules control interactions between bacterial species with concomitant changes in the distribution of metabolic fluxes

      Marie Therese Giudici-Orticoni, David Ranava and Cassandra Backes

      Formation of multi-species communities allows nearly every niche on earth to be colonized. Exchange of molecular information among neighbouring bacteria in such communities is crucial for the bacteria to thrive. Yet the principles controlling these inter-species interactions are poorly defined. To shed light on them, we developed a synthetic microbial consortium with two anaerobic bacteria, Clostridium acetobutylicum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. these 2 bacterai can be found together in Nature involved in anaerobic digestion of organic waste matter nd in consequence in BIO-H2 production. Our studies demonstrate that for cell-cell interaction can allow to overcome nutrient starvation and that many materials can passed from one cell to another. This physical interaction induces changes in the distribution of metabolic fluxes and allows a substantial increase in H2 production without requiring genetic engineering. We identify that the agent necessary for these physical interactions between C. acetobutylicum and D. vulgaris (or E. coli and D. vulgaris), with the consequent metabolic exchanges, is the quorum-sensing molecule.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 12 - 12

      Comparison study on host plant growth promotion by different Metarhizium species

      Xinggang Liao, Zebin Meng and Yanfen Huang

      Metarhizium spp. is a kind of important entomopathogenic fungi, which has been widely applied as biological control agents in China and rest of the world. Besides killing target insects, these fungi could also survive in soils in natural environment. Partial strains could even colonize host plant root during saprophytic phase and some of them are able to promote host plants growth. Here, we tested the rhizosphere competence among different Metarhizium species (M. robertsii - Mr2575, Mr23 and Mr1046, M. anisopliae - Ma808, Ma932 and Ma939, M. brunneum - Mb820, Mb1187 and Mb2974 and M. acridum - Mac324) and their effects on corn growth, which is one of the primary cereal crops in Guizhou province. All strains colonized corn roots but Mb1187 and Mac324 had less rhizospheric populations than other strains during the one-month pot trial. In addition, Mb1187 and Mac324 failed to promote corn growth possibly due to their poor rhizosphere competence. In contrast, rhizospheric populations and growth promotion by rest of the strains were significantly increased. The Mr23, Ma939 and Mb820 strains demonstrated maximal increase in corn vegetative growth such as leaf collar formation and stalk growth, and thereafter were selected as qualified candidates for further virulence test on some indigenous underground pests.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 13 - 13

      Isolation and characterization of rhizosphere mycoflora in some agricultural crop plants

      Ratageri R.H., Meghana G S and Chitra V K

      Rhizosphere is a soil ecological region where soil is subjected to specific influence by plant root due to the interface. The great array of root- microbe interactions results in the development of a dynamic environment known as the rhizosphere where microbial communities also interact. The differing physical, chemical, and biological properties of the root – associated soil compared with those of the root – free bulk soil, are responsible for changes in microbial diversity and for increased numbers and activity of microorganisms in the rhizosphere micro – environment Experiments were carried out in the P.G Department of Botany and Microbiology, Government Science Chitradurga. Chitradurga located at 140 14N 76` 24`E/ 14.230N 76.40E it has average elevation of 732m (2401 ft). Characterization of mycoflora in phyllosphere and Rhizosphere were done with the help of K.R.Aneja( 1996). Macerated slides and spores were photographed by using digital camera Nikon D500.Our investigation reveals that their enough diversity in the fungal flora from the study area  The highest number of fungal species obtained as Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus flavipes, Aspergillus fumigatous, Aspergillus terrus followed by Curvularia, Chetomonium, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Fusarium & Trichoderma. Which constitutes 70% dominant Aspergillus and remaining species 30%.This study shows that Colony Fungal Unit (cfu) /plate were always higher during evening exposure period than morning period. When the comparison is made between the four sites with respect to the total number of colonies per site, the highest numbers of colonies were recorded in the crops like Jowar and Ragi than Maize and Mustard.Therefore the present investigation reveals that four sites containing more number of mycofloral diversity in the study area.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 14 - 14

      Aberrant PD-1 ligand expression contributes to the myocardial inflammatory injury caused by Coxsackievirus B infection

      Xueqing Wang, Tianying Wang and Shuang Chen

      Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) is considered as one of the most common pathogens of human viral myocarditis. CVB-induced myocarditis is mainly characterized by the persistence of the virus infection and immune-mediated inflammatory injury. Costimulatory signals are crucial for the activation of adaptive immunity. Our data reveal that the CVB type 3 (CVB3) infection altered the expression profile of costimulatory molecules in host cells. CVB3 infection caused the decrease of PD-1 ligand expression, partially due to the cleavage of AU-rich element binding protein AUF1 by the viral protease 3Cpro, leading to the exacerbated inflammatory injury of the myocardium. Moreover, systemic PD-L1 treatment, which augmented the apoptosis of proliferating lymphocytes, alleviated myocardial inflammatory injury. Our findings suggest that PD1-pathway can be a potential immunologic therapeutic target for CVB-induced myocarditis.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 15 - 15

      Occurrence and pathogenicity of some fungi isolated from Kanawa forest soil in Gombe state, Nigeria

      Haruna U.S, Umar A.F, Tahir F and Agbo E. B

      The increased use of conventional chemical pesticides over the years has resulted to an adverse effect on the environment and in the destructions of non-target organisms. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) revealed that pesticides: Aldrin & Dieldrin previously used to control termites among other insect pests are probable human carcinogens (Anderson, 2007.  A total of two Entomopathogenic Fungi species (Beauveria bassiana,and Metarrhizia anisopliae ) were isolated both from insect cadavers and the soils within the forest environment ,with the following percentages of occurences  Beauveria bassiana (44.4%)  and Metarrhizia anisopliae (27.2%). The pathogenicity of the two fungal isolates were tested on two insects Lamprina aurata and Galleria mellonella. More pathogenicity was observed from Beauveria bassiana 78.35 (15.67%), Followed by Metarrhizia anisopliae 73.35 (14.67%) for Lamprina aurata and Metarrhizia anisopliae was more pathogenic on Galleria mellonella than Beauveria bassiana with 85.00 (17.00%) and 81.56 (16.33%) respectively. Entomopathogenic fungi are environmentally safe and are natural enemies to insects, therefore entomopathogenic fungi ( biocontrol agents ) are the ideal candidates for integrated pest management in the farms, forest and Green houses.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 16 - 16

      Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Salmonella Isolated from Enteric Fever Suspected Patients

      Bijayata Shrestha

      Background: Enteric fever is one of the most common diseases encountered worldwide and is endemic in Nepal. This study was conducted to access antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Salmonella isolates from culture positive cases of enteric fever.

      Methods: Altogether 505 blood samples were collected from patients clinically suspected of enteric fever attending HAMS Hospital. All blood samples were cultured by BACTEC method and sub cultured in blood agar and MacConkey agar plates. All isolates were identified by colony characteristics, biochemical tests and serotyping methods. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by modified Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method interpreted with CLSI guideline.

      Result: Isolation rate of Salmonella species was 3.6%. Among 18 Salmonella isolates, 10 were S. typhi, 8 were S. paratyphi A. The prevalence rate of infection was high among the age group 11-20 years (50%) and among the male patients. However, there was no significant association of enteric fever with gender of patients (p=2.47). All 18 isolates were sensitive to Amoxycillin, Azithromycin, Ceftriaxone and Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin and Ofloxacin. Majority of isolates were sensitive to Cefixime (94.4%), Cotrimoxazole (94.4%) and Cephotaxime (90%). There were no any MDR isolates. Higher percentage of isolates was resistant to Nalidixic acid (87.5%).

      Conclusion: The decreased susceptibility to Fluroquinolones of S. typhi and S. Paratyphi A can be correlated with resistance to Nalidixic acid. Commonly used third generation Cephalosporins and rolled back first line drugs be the choice in case of NARS isolates.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 17 - 17

      Isolation and Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Its Virulent Bacteriophages

      Eman M. Marie

      Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a free-living bacterium in widely different areas such as plants, soil, water and other moist locations. It is pathogenic to plants and humans. P. aeruginosa causes several disease symptoms to plants such as wet rot and curved leaves. The virulent bacterial viruses of P. aeruginosa were found to be of widespread occurrence in nature and isolated from widely different sources. Bacterial viruses were applied to control pathogenic bacteria in different fields and successfully. Therefore, this work aimed to study the different characteristics of P. aeruginosa lytic phage isolates. Moreover, the biocontrol of P. aeruginosa by lytic phage isolates was also studied. Different physical and molecular characteristics were assayed and determined of P. aeruginosa lytic bacteriophages. Also, the effect of phage isolates on P. aeruginosa as a biocontrol under lab condition was studied. 
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic bacterium was isolated from a sewage water sample. Two lytic bacteriophages specific to P. aeruginosa were isolated from same sewage water sample and designated Pa1 and Pa2. Both phage isolates (Pa1 and Pa2) found to be stable in 90ºC and low and high pH levels. The total count of P. aeruginosa decreased after 48h. in broth treated with lytic phages. RAPD-PCR amplification was indicated that the two phage isolates (Pa1 and Pa2) are belonging to two different phage types. 
      The results of this study indicated that both lytic phage isolates could be used as biological control agents against the plant pathogen P. aeuroginosa.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 18 - 18

      Isolation and Identification of Bacterial Fauna from the Midgut of Anopheles gambiae complex in Malaria Endemic Areas of Northern Nigeria

      Habibu U. Abdu

      Malaria parasites transmission in Nigeria is primarily due to the genus Anopheles. This study was carried out with the aim to isolate and identify bacteria from midgut of Anopheles species. A total of 200 Anopheles mosquito larvae, 100 each from Agricultural field sites (strain A) and residential sites (strain R) were collected and reared to adults. Susceptibility bio-assay performed on the adults Anopheles. Anopheles mosquitoes were anesthetized by chloroform and dissected. 70% of ethanol was used for surface sterilization of mosquitoes and laboratory equipment, followed by rinsing Anopheles mosquitoes four times with 1X PBS. Each dissected midgut from the Anopheles mosquitoes was transferred in 1X PBS and squashed, labeled and incubated in the water bath and enriched in tryptic soya broth for 24 h at 35 ± 2 °C.  The culture dependent approach using different mediums was used to investigate the bacterial biodiversity. The microbiota in the two pools of Anopheles was diverse with strain R showing a greater gut bacterial diversity than strain A, with both strains dominated by Gram-negative bacteria. The more resistant strain (Strain A) showed lower bacterial diversity. This finding can be used as a baseline for studying the relationship between microbiota and mosquitoes, and for the development of a new malaria biological control. The gut bacterial populations of Anopheles gambiae could be a crucial determinant of their life histories, and the expression of insecticide resistance. 

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 19 - 19

      Classical microbiological diagnostics of bacteremia - Are the negative results really negative? What is laboratory result telling us about Gold Standard?

      Tomasz Zrodlowski, Joanna Sobonska, Dominika Salamon, Isabel M. McFarlane, Miroslaw Zietkiewicz and Tomasz Gosiewski

      Introduction: Standard blood cultures require at least 24-120 hours to be reported as preliminary positive.
      Objectives: The objective of this study was to compare the reliability of Gram staining and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), for detecting bacteremia in otherwise negative blood culture bottles.

      Patients and methods: We performed Gram stain and FISH to 82 sets of negative blood cultures and 82 blood samples taken from post-operative septic patients and 57 blood samples taken from healthy volunteers.

      Results:    Using Gram stain in 62.2% of blood samples, 35.4% of the negative aerobic bottles, and in 31.7% of the negative anaerobic bottle’s bacteria were visualized. Utilizing FISH, we detected bacteria respectively in 75.6%, 56.1% and 64.6% of samples. Among the blood samples from healthy volunteers, FISH detected bacteremia in 64.9% of the blood while Gram stain detected bacteria in only 38.6%. The time needed to obtain the study results using Gram stain was 1 hour, for FISH 4 hours and for the culture method, considering the duration of growth, 5 days.

      Conclusions: Gram stain and FISH allow quick detection of bacteria in the blood taken directly from a patient. Finding phagocytosed bacteria, which was also detected among healthy individuals, confirm the hypothesis that blood microbiome exists.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 20 - 20

      Identification of pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria by biosensors

      Yousef Alaee Mollabashi

      Bacteria have different types and some of them are essential for human life and others cause problems such as illness and death and financial loss. The best way to prevent illness or prevent the patient from becoming ill is to identify pathogenic bacteria in the patient's body for drug administration and precise treatment, or even before entering the body in an infected environment. There are common methods for identifying pathogenic bacteria but for some reasons such as low speed, low accuracy, low susceptibility to contamination, high cost, etc. cause problems in identifying the infection. Biosensors are one of the newest methods of identifying contaminants and diseases that don't have problems with conventional methods. The purpose of this article is to draw the attention of audiences and professionals to the high ability of biosensors to detect pathogenic bacteria. One important point in the study of the source literature is the minimal concentration required to identify the infection and the bacteria, which makes biosensors superior to traditional methods. The results of the studies show that due to the low concentration required and low identification the limit of detection by biosensors, the speed and cost are reduced. For example, for the identification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus by a particular type of biosensor that reported from the DNA of this biosensor the ability to detect a wide range of microbes at shorter speeds and shorter times, and the activity of this biosensor at concentrations of 105-108 CFU/ml did its best. A biosensor for the identification of Yersinia enterocolitica reported a suitable concentration for numerical identification between 104 - 106 CFU/ml and at the same time, the limit of detection of this bacterium by a biosensor was expressed very low and appropriate. For detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a biosensor, the limit of detection of the bacterium was 2 CFU / ml. This study highlights the potential of biosensors for investment and further studies.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 21 - 21

      Extended-spectrum ?-lactamases producing multidrug resistant E. coli among dogs, cats and their owners in Pakistan

      Rana Muhammad Abdullah and Mashkoor Mohsin

      Infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) E. coli strains are common both in humans and animals. In particular, the pet animals have been considered as a potential carrier of MDR E. coli. Therefore, this study was designed to detect the ESBL producing E. coli isolates in companion animals, their owners and veterinary professionals.  A total of 105 rectal swabs from pets (n=45), their owners (n=45) and veterinary professionals (n=15) were screened for the presence of ESBL producing E. coli, MDR and their genetic relatedness.

      A total of 73/105 (69.5%) ESBL producing E. coli were recovered from this study. ESBL E. coli isolates in dogs (18/22) and dog owners (13/22) were 81.8% and 59%, respectively. ESBL E. coli isolates in cats (17/23) and cat owners (13/23) were 74% and 56.5%, respectively. While these E. coli isolates in veterinary professionals (12/15) were 80 %. Of these, isolates 23/73 (31.5%) isolates showed MDR phenotype. Resistance to ampicillin, cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin AMP-CTX-CIP-F represented the most common pattern of MDR (17.4%). None of the isolate was resistant to tobramycin. Among the ESBL E. coli with MDR, PCR detected blaCTX-M as the most common ESBL genotype (19/23).  CTX-M-1 group was found among all the 19 blaCTX-M positive E. coli. Furthermore, BOX-PCR fingerprints showed distinct clonal groups indicating high genetic diversity among CTX-M-1 producing E. coli isolates. The presence of multidrug resistant E. coli in particular of ESBL class CTX-M-1 in dogs, cats, their owners and veterinary health workers pose a zoonotic threat for the spread of multidrug resistant bacteria. 

      Volume 9, Issue 4 (2020)

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Editorial: Medical Microbiology

        Ramana KV

        DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.313

        Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis commemorates its decade long service to the scientific community by consistently publishing peerreviewed articles and tracking the progress and significant advancements in the field of Microbiology. Ever since its inception in the year 2012, in addition to regular issue releases on a quarterly basis, this transdisciplinary journal is also releasing special issues and conference proceedings from time to time, thus comprehensively covering a wide range of topics and emerging challenges in Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. The journal focuses on application oriented research on Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. In this issue some of the recent and impactful research articles that were published by the journal will be discussed.

        Editor Note Pages: 2 - 2

        Special Issue: Medical Microbiology

        Ramana KV

        DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.314

        This year, the Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis commemorates its decade long publication service in the field of Microbiology. With a successful International publications record, the journal has already begun compilation of the third issue in the 9th volume. In addition to the regular issues the journal has been publishing special issues, supplements and conference proceedings from time to time. In general, the journal covers all including Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. With good citation record, the journal is included in indexing databases conferring wide geographical outreach, such as Index Copernicus, Open J Gate, CAS Source Index along with simultaneous portproduction digital media promotion policy. Ever since its inception in the year 2012 the journal has been consistently producing quality articles sourced from all across the world. The journal holds impeccable record of regular bimonthly issue release frequency with publication time lines. 

        Editorial Pages: 3 - 4

        Editorial Note : ???Pathogenesis and Epidemiology of Corona Virus???

        Kandi Venkat Ramana

        DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.314

        Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.  

        Short Commentary Pages: 5 - 5

        Short Commentary on Medical Microbiology

        Faridi M

        DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.315

        Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis commemorates its decade long service to the scientific community by consistently publishing peerreviewed articles and tracking the progress and significant advancements in the field of Microbiology. Ever since its inception in the year 2012, in addition to regular issue releases on a quarterly basis, this transdisciplinary journal is also releasing special issues and conference proceedings from time to time, thus comprehensively covering a wide range of topics and emerging challenges in Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. The journal focuses on application oriented research on Bacteriology, Clinical and Medical Diagnostics, Parasitology, Bacterial Infections. In this issue some of the recent and impactful research articles that were published by the journal will be discussed. 

        Short Communication Pages: 7 - 7

        Editorial Highlights: Journal of Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis

        Verma SC

        DOI: 10.37421/jmmd.2020.9.316

        Without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success have no meaning. Founded by Prof. Dr. Vikram Vermai (University of Minnesota, USA) Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis (ISSN: 2161-0703) is growing continuously. It is our pleasure to announce that during year 2019, all issues of volume 8 were published online on time and the print issues were also brought out and dispatched within 30 days of publishing the issue online.    
         
        Medical Microbiology and Diagnosis during this year also brought out Infectious Diseases and Control and World Pathology Congress 2020, which consisted of ~ 50 abstracts. 

        8th World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology | September 28-29, 2020 (2020)

          Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

          Past Conference Editorial of Applied Microbiology 2020

          Adamantia Kampioti

          Conference Series LLC Ltd hosted the “Applied Microbiology 2020”, during September 28-29, 2020 at Webinar, with the theme, “Role of Applied Microbiology towards Covid19 and other Viral Diseases”, which was a great success. Eminent speakers from various reputed institutions and Hospitals participated in the Live event.

          We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference.

          Applied Microbiology 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who shared their knowledge on various research in all areas of Applied Microbiology.

          Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the participants of “Applied Microbiology 2020”.

          Conference Series LLC Ltd thank Applied Microbiology 2020 Organizing Committee, Speakers, Chairs & Co-Chairs and also the Moderator of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC LTD thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of Applied Microbiology.

          Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “9th World Congress and Expo on Applied Microbiology, which will be held during October 25-26, 2021 at Zurich, Switzerland. We cordially welcome all the eminent researchers, Microbiologists, Biotechnologists, Parasitologists, Mycologists, Pathologists, Pharmacists, Health Care Professionals, Infectious Diseases Specialists, Infection Prevention and Infection Control Specialists, Researchers in life science, Medical specialists in parasitology, Research Professors and research fellows, Students and delegates to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of Applied Microbiology with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.

          Bookmark your dates for “Applied Microbiology 2021, Zurich” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 2

          Microbiological Evaluation of a New Functional Snack Based on Black Currants from Zakynthos Island (Greece)

          Adamantia Kampioti, Effimia Eriotou, Vasiliki Diamanti, Dimitra Alimpoumpa1, Dimitra Kleissiari, Nikolaos Sidirokastritis, Dionysios Koulougliotis and NikolaosKopsahelis

          Fruit or dried fruit and nuts are among the most popular healthy snacks. A locally produced “super-food” is the black currant produced in Zakynthos Island (Greece) with health benefits well documented. Our aim was to formulate a microbiologically safe functional snack of high nutritional value and determine its shelf life.An almond crust was prepared by mixing wheat flour, chopped almonds, butter, sugar and eggs and oven cooked. Cooled crusts were overlaid with 10 g of rehydrated black currants and 10 ml of black currant grape jelly (pH = 3.3) containing Bifidobacterium species BB-12 at cell concentration of 6.0 x 109 cfu/g. Tartlets were individually wrapped in plastic wrap and stored at two different temperatures (4 oC and -2 oC). Microbial population in tartlets was examined every second day for: Bifidobacterium, total aerobic count, micrococci, Gram negative bacteria, yeasts and molds, S. aureus, E. coli, L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.using appropriate conditions. Results are the mean of two runs (n=3). Furthermore, a taste test was performed at 2-day intervals.The mean value of Bifidobacterium counts was reduced by 1 log cycle at day 10 and 16 when kept at 4oC and -2oC, respectively.Neither microbiological contamination nor taste defect was detected for the pre-mentioned  time period.Conclusions:A microbiologically safe new functional snack has been formulated with shelf life of 10 and 16 days when stored at 4 oC and -2 oC respectively. The authors acknowledge support from the Operational Programme “Ionian Islands 2014-2020” (Project: MIS 5006880)

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 3

          Histhopathological and haematological assessment of albino rats fed with Pleurotus ostreatus cultivated on five selected medicinal trees

          Ayilara-Akande Simbiat OLufunke

          Pleurotus is a genus of gilled mushrooms which includes the most widely eaten mushrooms. research was carried out to assess the effect of the medicinal tree on the mineral content and nutritional value of the mushroom using standard method. The result revealed that the mushroom grown on cashew tree substrate, had the highest increase in calcium, sodium, magnesium and iron content followed by mushroom cultivated on dongoyaro. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of the woods on which the mushrooms were grown showed the presence of alkaloid , anthraquinine, flavonoid, steroid, tannin, saponin and cardiac glycoside, while in addition to these, the mushroom had anthraquinone. The in vivo evaluation of the mushroom on albino rats showed that the mushroom from cashew had the highest effect on the PCV followed by the mushroom cultivated on dongoyaro with a PCV of 48.52±1.05 percent and 47.40±0.18 percent, while the white blood cell count and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate both decreased. The histopathology result of the various organs of albino rats analyzed showed no negative pathological changes in the liver, intestine, kidneys and lungs of all the rats fed with all the mushroom samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the mushrooms have no deleterious effect on the rats. And the findings in this study demonstrated that mushroom’s efficacy can be enhanced by utilizing  plant with medicinal property as mushroom substrate or growing medium.

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 4 - 4

          Wild Yeast Identification and Wine Production from Grapes of the Local Variety "Vertzami" Grown in Lefkada Island (Ionian Islands, Greece)

          Dionysios Koulougliotis, Nikolaos Kopsahelis, Chrysanthi Pateraki, Iliada Lappa, Dimitra Alimpoumpa, Vasiliki Diamanti, Alexandros Laggis, Adamantia Kampioti and Effimia Eriotou

          The chemical composition of wine is affected by many factors among which grape microbial ecology and the fermentation process.Very few wineries of Lefkada island employ spontaneous fermentation, using wild yeasts found on the grapes, to ensure “local and distinguished bouquet ” in their wines. Our aim was to explore the indigenous yeast microbiota of the local red grape variety Vertzami, select indigenous Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and determine the antioxidant activity of the produced wine.In total, 231 yeast strains were isolated from wine lees at the end of spontaneous fermentation and identified via the API 20C AUX system.Alcohol resistance was determined by growing cells onto YEPD plates at 0-17%v/v ethanol. Sulfite tolerance was examined by growing strains in YEPD broth containing 100 mg/L SO2. Thirty yeast isolates were selected and used in small scale vinifications. The antioxidant activity of each wine product was determined spectrophotometrically (DPPH absorbance at 517 nm).The yeast species identified included S. cerevisiae (75.7%), Candida lusitiniae (11.3%) and Candida famata (9.1%) (3.9% not identified). 78.8% of the yeast strains tolerated 12% ethanol whereas only 22.1% grew at 17%. All S. cerevisiae strains were sulfite-resistant whereas all other yeasts were sulfite-intolerant. The thirty wine samples exhibited a mean antioxidant activity of 1.38 mmol Trolox/l. Statistical analysis provided evidence for two distinct clusters A (11 samples) and B (19 samples) with different mean antioxidant activities (1.53 and 1.28 mmol Trolox/l, respectively).The authors acknowledge support from the Operational Programme “Ionian Islands 2014-2020” (Project: MIS 5006342)

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 5 - 5

          Olive Oils from Corfu Island (Greece): Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Health-Protective Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of the Oils

          Effimia Eriotou, Iliana Kalampoki, Dionysios Koulougliotis, Nikolaos Kopsahelis, Eleni Meliou, Prokopios Magiatis, Dimitra Kleissiari, Sofia Maina, and Adamatia Kampioti

          Health-promoting properties of olive oil are partially attributed to their phenolic compounds. Olive oils produced from native cultivars of the island Corfu were studied to a) determine content in six phenolic compounds with health-protecting potential, b) probe antioxidant activity and its correlation with the phenolics and c) examine antimicrobial activity (AA) of oil and of each specific phenolic.Olive oil was produced under the same conditions from olives collected early in the harvest period. Determination of six phenolic compounds [oleocanthal (A), oleacein (B), ligstroside aglycone (C), oleokoronal (D), oleuropein aglycone (E), oleomissional (F)] was done via 1H-NMR.Antioxidant activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease of the DPPH absorbance.The AA of an olive oil sample as well as of compounds A, B, C, E, and F was tested on Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, 7644 and 1911, Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579 and 10876 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 via the disc assay with erythromycin as a positive reference standard.The highest AA was exhibited by the olive oil sample. All individual compounds, except C, were found to have antimicrobial activity with A and B being the most potent. Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity was done on samples from two cultivars: “Lianolia” (“L”) and “Koroneiki” (“K”). Olive oil from Corfu island and specific isolated phenolic compounds were shown to possess antimicrobial activity. The oils exhibited antioxidant activities which were correlated with their phenolic content.The authors acknowledge support from the Operational Programme “Ionian Islands 2014-2020” (Project: MIS 5005497)

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 6 - 6

          Antibacterial Activity Screening of Crude Extracts Obtained from Native Fungi of Tropical Rainforest in Colombia

          Esteban Charria Girón

          Bioactive secondary metabolite production from fungal strains has become a recurring research focus in recent decades, as these microorganisms represent an unexplored biological niche for its diverse biotechnological potential. Despite this, studies involving tropical fungi remain scarce, particularly those isolated from medicinal plants of these ecosystems. Also, the state of the art of the pharmaceutical industry has been experiencing stagnation for the last 30 years, a situation that has led to pathogen infections being one-step ahead, developing resistance to existing treatments.This study aims to find promising bioactive producers through the screening of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts obtained from the fermentation of endophytic and polypore fungi isolated from Otoba gracilipes and Vismia baccifera, medicinal trees from native ecosystems.In this study, twelve fungal strains isolated from these medicinal trees (Six endophytes and six polypore fungi) were cultured in PDB medium. After all the available carbon sources were depleted, both the mycelium and the exhausted medium were subjected to an extraction process of the metabolites present in organic phases. Even when most of the evaluated strains have presented antibacterial activity, the exhaust medium crude organic extract from the endophyte Xylaria sp. displayed high antibacterial activity against both Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 16.84 and 14.29 mg/mL respectively.The above supports the potential of Colombian native biodiversity to provide new approaches to the global emergence of antibiotics resistance and future production of undiscovered compounds different from current antibiotics classes, and at the same time calling for the value of preserving native habitats due to their promising ecosystemic applications in the biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries.

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

          Prediction of environmental indicators in land leveling using artificial intelligence technique

          Isham alzoubi

          Land leveling is one of the most important steps in soil preparation for agricultural and other purposes. New techniques based on artificial intelligence, such as Artificial Neural Network, integrating Artificial Neural Network and Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA-ANN), or Genetic Algorithms (GA-ANN), or Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO-ANN) have been employed for developing predictive models to estimate the energy related parameters and the results were compared to SPSS and Sensitivity Analysis  results. In this study, several soil properties such as cut/fill volume, compressibility factor, specific gravity, moisture content, slope of the area, sand percent, and swelling index were measured and their effects on energy consumption were investigated. Totally 90 samples were collected from 3 land areas by grid size of 20m×20m. The aim of this work was to develop predictive models based on artificial intelligence techniques to predict the environmental indicators of land leveling . Results of sensitivity analysis illustrated that only three parameters consist of soil density, soil compressibility, and soil cut/fill volume had meaningful effects on energy consumption. Among the proposed methods, the GA-ANN had the most capability in prediction of the environmental energy parameters. However, for prediction of LE and FE the ANN and ICA-ANN algorithms had better performance. On the other hand, SPSS software had higher R2 value than Minitab software and sensitivity analysis and in fact close to the ANN values. 

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 8 - 8

          Influence of Land Use on Stream Water Quality and Microbial Communities in the Panama Canal Watershed

          Karina A. Chavarria

          The widespread and increasing occurrence of urbanization, agriculture, pasture conversion and deforestation, among others, represent a real threat to the conservation of lotic ecosystems and water quality. Different land cover/use can significantly impact the physical, chemical and bacteriological properties and dynamics of stream ecosystems. A better understanding of how land use can influence the ways in which microbes move through tropical watersheds is essential for implementing best practices for managing microbial contaminants in freshwater systems, such as through buffer zones along streams.  This talk will focus on work being carried out at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute to: 1) characterize taxonomic and functional profiles of microbial communities of surface waters in parts of the Panama Canal Watershed that are influenced by different land uses, including mature and secondary forests, traditional pastures and silvopastures; 2) evaluate potential associations among microbial taxa and various environmental and land use factors; and 3) characterize long-term spatial and temporal changes in water quality. We aim to determine if microbial communities, as characterized with 16S rDNA metabarcoding, can serve as a bioindicator of stream health.

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 9 - 9

          Research work on antimicrobial activity of honey against specific microbes

          Sher Ali

          The study was carried out in Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan in 2011 on the antimicrobial activity of honey against specific microbes which include like E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcusaureus, Enterococcusfaecalis and Candidaalbican. During the study the 37 honey samples were collected from different district of Hazara division and Malakand division like Mansehra Swat and Dir were selected for the samples collection. For the samples collection process 170 indoor and outdoor patients were visited. The microorganisms were isolated from the various samples collected from the patients having the confirmed infection which were further processed in the microbiology laboratory by using nutrient agar incubated on 37 oC for 24 hours. During the research work agar well plate technique were used to examine the maximum zone of inhibition on Muller Hinton agar against all the specified organisms. Result showed that E.coli showed66mm, Salmonella Typhi62mm, Enterococcus faecalis 60 mm, Candida albican 50 mm and Staphylococcus aureus 38 mm. From the study it is concluded that honey is used against different diseases and infections like wound infection, diarrhea, dehydration, paralysis, enterococcus faecalis, chest infection, jaundice, tuberculosis and Urinary tract infections.

          Value Added Abstracts Pages: 10 - 10

          Developing TASTE from the WASTE!

          Tanya Bajaj

          Amongst the major crops being produced in India, wheat (100 Million metric tons) and rice (112 MMT) are the two main food crops mowed by the farmers every year.This leads to the accumulation of huge agro-waste comprising of wheat and rice straw- a large portion of which is burnt in open fields as a regular practice. Apart from affecting the soil fertility, the practice of stubble burning is a major source of air pollution as it leads to emission of large amounts of suspended particulate matter along with gases like CH4, CO, N2O, NOX, SO2 and hydrocarbons. In today’s era of clean and green technologies, the hazardous wastes that pose a threat to the environment can be transformed into wealth via multiple routes.We propose that enzymes like lipases can play a role in these ‘waste-to-wealth’ routes of agro-waste utilization for the synthesis of natural food ingredients. The industry today needs sustainable technologies for lipase production and enzyme-mediated bio-transformations. Thus we aim to develop a novel efficient and cost-effective green process of lipase production by exploiting agro-waste as a substrate for fermentation and for subsequent synthesis of food flavor esters. During the course of this work, a bacterial library has been screened to obtain multiple isolates that effectively utilize agricultural waste as a substrate for enzyme synthesis, evidenced through high lipolytic titers (corresponding to nearly 2000 Units). The said microbes are able to thrive in high, industry-friendly temperature ranges and produce thermostable enzyme(s) for biotransformation of the agro-waste, thereby achieving an edge over their mesophilic counterparts.

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