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Malaria Control & Elimination

ISSN: 2470-6965

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 10, Issue 3 (2021)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Malaria Prevention and Public Health Issues

    Saleh A Naser*

    Control, elimination, and eradication of malaria are one of the world’s greatest public health challenges, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.The expectation of producing an effectivevaccine has been on for 40 years, but the recent breakthrough announcement of a malaria vaccine showing some level of protection among infants and children 3-4 years post vaccination seems like an excellent starting point. The globally accepted strategy for the control of malaria rely on chemotherapy, but unfortunately the overreliance on chemotherapy without proper control of drug usage and diagnosis has encouraged the selection of drug-resistant parasites, significantly contributing to the problem. Therefore, the prospects of malaria eradication rest heavily on integrated approaches that would include chemotherapy, vector control, and manipulation of environmental and ecological characteristics, and vaccination.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Cooperation Initiative in Malaria Control and Elimination

    Ning Xiao

    The objectives of this study are to describe the malaria situation in Ghana and give a brief account of how mathematical modelling techniques could support a more informed malaria control effort in the Ghanaian context. A review is carried out of some mathematical models investigating the dynamics of malaria transmission in subSaharan African countries, including Ghana. Collaboration between malaria control experts and modellers will allow for more appropriate mathematical models to be developed. A core set of intervention and treatment options are recommended by the World Health Organization for use against falciparum malaria.

    Editorial Pages: 0 - 1

    Quantifying Impact of Human Mobility on Malaria

    Dr Simon I Hay*

    The World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme, in keeping with its mandate to set evidence-informed policies for malaria control, has convened the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee as a mechanism to increase the timeliness, transparency, independence and relevance of its recommendations to World Health Organization member states in relation to malaria control and elimination.As a result, there is a growing need for the malaria policy setting process to rapidly review increasing amounts of evidence.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Global Prospects and Strategies of Malaria Control & Elimination

    Dr K. Mendis*

    During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in controlling malaria worldwide through the large-scale implementation of effective malaria interventions. The magnitude of this progress has led some malaria-endemic countries, even those with historically high burdens of malaria, to consider the possibility of malaria elimination. Malaria elimination is defined as the reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts. Significant progress has been achieved in malaria control worldwide over the past decade. Increased financial support for malaria programs has enabled impressive reductions in transmission in many endemic regions. These successes have stimulated renewed discussion of how, when, and where malaria can be eliminated.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Evaluation of Malaria Control and Prevention of Malaria Elimination

    David Bath

    Malaria is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) world malaria report for 2018, there were 228 million cases and 405,000 deaths worldwide.Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control using appropriate combinations of interventions requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk. An evidence-based description of the global range of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity has not been assembled in almost 40 y. This paper aims to define the global geographic distribution of P. falciparum malaria in 2007 and to provide a preliminary description of its transmission intensity within this range. Methods and Findings The global spatial distribution of P. falciparum malaria was generated using nationally reported case-incidence data, medical intelligence, and biological rules of transmission exclusion, using temperature and aridity limits informed by the bionomics of dominant Anopheles vector species.

    Volume 10, Issue 4 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 2 - 8

      Extent of asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections and associated risk factors at household and individual levels in Korhogo health district, Northern Côte d’Ivoire: implications for malaria control

      Edjronké M. A. Benié*

      Background: Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic carriers are potential reservoirs contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission in endemic areas. The study was designed to assess the extent of Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic infection at household and individual levels and associated risk factors in Northern Côte d’Ivoire.

      Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2016 at household level in the health district of Korhogo. A questionnaire was administered to household’s head to capture socio-demographic information and practices including malaria treatment and preventive measures. In each household, adults without malaria symptoms or history of fever during the week before recruitment were screened. Capillary blood samples were collected and used for the detection of Plasmodium spp. infections using both conventional microscopy and a loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) assay. Logistic regression was used to determine variables that influenced Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic infections.

      Findings: In total, 376 households and 1’011 asymptomatic adults were screened. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections were identified in 12.5% [47/376] and 38.3% [144/376] of the households and in 5.2% [53/1011] and 18.8% [190/1011] of the individuals screened, according to microscopy and LAMP, respectively. At household level, asymptomatic carriers increased about two times when using mosquito repellent coils compared to those where it is not used (OR: 1.8; p=0.005). At individual level, men’s risk to be infected was about two times that of women (OR: 1.9; p<0.001). The odd to be infected was also two times higher in population living in periurban areas compared to those living in the urban centre (OR: 2.3; p<0.001). Additionally, age appear to be risk factor, with younger individuals being at higher risk of infection than elders (OR: 0.5; p=0.001).

      Conclusion: Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic carriers are important in Northern Côte d’Ivoire and male, age under 30 and periurban living area appear as significant risk factors. Interventions aiming malaria elimination in the study context should primarily target among other strategies, asymptomatic infections and periurban zones.

      Volume 10, Issue 5 (2021)

        Commentary Pages: 1 - 2

        National Framework for Malaria Elimination

        Abimbola Amoo*

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        Research Article Pages: 1 - 12

        Tetrazole Moiety as a Pharmacophore in Medicinal Chemistry: A Review

        P Patowary, B Deka* and D Bharali

        In present day scenario, tetrazole has gained increasing popularity due to its broad-spectrum of biological properties such as antitubercular, anticancer, antimalarial, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory activities etc. Tetrazole, beinga bioisostere of the carboxylic acid group can replace the carboxyl group in drugswhich can be utilized to increase the lipophilicity, bioavailability and to reduce theside effects of drugs. Many tetrazole containing compounds have already been used for the treatment of various diseases primarily due to their better pharmacokineticprofile and metabolic stability. Therefore, this heterocyclic tetrazole moiety having admirable biological, pharmaceutical and clinical applications can be considered as an important pharmacophore in the development of new drugs.The presentsurveyreviews the various approaches available for the synthesis of tetrazole derivatives along with the different biological activity of substituted tetrazole derivatives like antitubercular, anticancer, antimalarial, antidiabetic, and antifungal and anti-inflammatory. This survey will serve as a comprehensive database of the biological, pharmaceutical and clinical applications of tetrazole which will be beneficial in facilitating further research and development on the topic.

        Volume 10, Issue 2 (2021)

          Research Pages: 1 - 5

          Natural Basis for the Proliferation of Malaria Vectors in Northern Benin (West Africa)

          Andre Sominahouin, Roseric Azondekon, Sahabi Bio Bangana, Casimir Kpanou, Germain Gil Padonou, Razaki Osse, Benoît Assogba, Fiacre Agossa, Filemon Tokponon, Martin C. Akogbeto.

          Background: Malaria transmission is based on four essential elements: the vector, the parasite, humans and the environment. However, of the four elements, the
          environment is not sufficiently exploited.
          Methods: In the research presence carried out in 6 localities in North Benin, we used a microscopic vision of the health geographer, focusing on certain components
          of geography, entomology and meteorology to show what to show spatial disparities in malaria transmission using Arcgis 10.4, Global Mapper and SPSS 21.0 for
          regression and correlation analysis.
          Results: The results of our research show that the slopes are unstable. Also, the lower the altitude the lower the water kinetics and consequently a lot of water
          stagnation favourable for the development of mosquito breeding sites. The explanatory power of the regression model means that 54.3% of the variation in positive
          mosquito breeding is explained by human population density.
          Conclusions: Benin must make significant progress in the elimination of malaria using a new effort to understand the ecology of vector mosquitoes based on spatial
          disparities in the fight against malaria.

          Research Pages: 1 - 8

          Occurrence of Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Gene Mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Comparative Phenotypic Susceptibility to Synergized Natural Pyrethrum Formulation

          Kefa S Sum

          Knockdown resistance (kdr) associated with single point mutation at the residue L1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc)
          gene in Anopheles gambiae s.l. is one of the known mechanisms of resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. This has emerged as a real threat to the continued effective use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) that rely mostly on pyrethroids as the active ingredient to control malaria vectors. There is, therefore, need for continuous monitoring the occurrence of vectors and development of alternative insecticide formulations as a strategy to manage kdr resistance and to sustain the use of this important technologies in malaria vector control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from Kisian, Ahero and Kipsitet, which are malaria endemic sites in western area of Kenya. The sibling species were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while genotyping for kdr mutation in the IIS4-IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc was done using real time
          PCR (RT-PCR). Susceptibility of the wild An. gambiae s.l and pink eyed An. gambiae s.s with fixed kdr resistance genes to synergized natural pyrethrum formulation
          was assessed using WHO impregnated papers. Bioassay data data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) while those with coefficient of variation (CV) of >15% were transformation into logarithms before analysis. Treatment means were compared using least significant difference (LSD, P=0.05).
          All the mosquitoes obtained from Kipsitet and Ahero areas were An. Arabiensis while in Kisian, 73% were An. arabiensis and 27% were An. gambiae s.s. No kdr genes
          were detected in the An. arabiensis while there was 100% frequency of the L1014S kdr mutation in the An. gambiae s.s. Natural pyrethrum formulation achieved
          significantly (P=0.0001) higher kill than pyrethroids against An. gambiae s.s. with kdr genes. High susceptibility of the An. gambiae s.s. with kdr mutation and wild
          phenotypes to the synergized pyrethrum formulation provides crucial evidence for practical management of the spreading kdr and other resistance mechanisms to
          pyrethroids in malaria vectors. The apparent lack of kdr resistance genes detected in An. arabiensis is proposed as a subject for further research.

          Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

          Vulnerability Associated with Transmission of Malaria among Migrants in Nepal

          Ram Chandra Poudel*

          Transmission of malaria determines receptivity and vulnerability characteristics of an area. As indigenous malaria cases in Nepal have declined in recent years, the number of imported cases, largely from India, has increased. In the context of increasing, trend of imported cases of malaria transmission in Nepal, it is important to understand the nature of imported cases of malaria and its vulnerability. The overall objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability associating transmission of malaria among migrants in province 5. Methods and Martials: Study designs have been descriptive and analytical, study populations have been all investigated imported cases, 159 sample sizes have been taken and secondary sources have been used for data collection. Department of health services, Epidemiology and diseases control Division has been providing data. Results: Must vulnerable age founded age group 15-59 years and mean age was found 28 ±11. Occupation was found to be statistically significantly associated with malaria species (p<0.01). Similarly, previous infection was also found to be associated with malaria species, which was statistical significant at p<0.01. Occupation was also found statistically significantly associated with use of preventive measures at p<0.01 level. Similarly duration of stay was found to be statistically significantly associates with use of preventive measures at p<0.05 level. Occupation was found statistical significantly associated with a previous history of malaria at p<0.05 level. Ethnicity was found statistical associated with treatment with national malaria treatment protocol, which was significant at p<0.05 level. Duration of stay was found statistically associates with treated with national malaria treatment protocol, which was significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusion: Must vulnerable age group was found 15-59 years group. With gender, males use less preventive measures as compared to female. Majority of Janjatis have not treated of their previous infection with national malaria treatment protocol. With occupation, labor was found must vulnerable for transmission of malaria than other occupational group. Those who stay less than 6 months or frequently visited different places were must vulnerable transmission of malaria infection.

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