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Malaria Control & Elimination

ISSN: 2470-6965

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 1 (2020)

    Editorial Note Pages: 1 - 2

    Editorial: Malaria Control & Elimination

    Praneeth Janagani

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    7th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (2020)

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Past Conference Editorial of Infection Congress 2020

      Shahryar Eghtesadi

      Conference Series LLC Ltd hosted the “Infection Congress”, during February 24-25, 2020 at Berlin, Germany with the theme, “Contemporary Strategies for Prevention and Control of Infectious Diseases”, which was a great success. Eminent keynote speakers from various reputed institutions and organizations addressed the gathering with their resplendent presence.

      We extend our grateful thanks to all the momentous speakers, conference attendees who contributed towards the successful run of the conference.

      Infection Congress 2020 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various latest and exciting innovations in all areas of Infectious Diseases.

      Infection Congress Organizing Committee extends its gratitude and congratulates the Honorable Moderators of the conference.

      Conference Series LLC Ltd extends its warm gratitude to all the Honorable Guests and Keynote Speakers of “Infection Congress”.

      • Shahryar Eghtesadi, Azad University, Iran

      Conference Series LLC Ltd is privileged to felicitate Infection Congress 2020 Organizing Committee, Keynote Speakers, Chairs & Co-Chairs and also the Moderators of the conference whose support and efforts made the conference to move on the path of success. Conference Series LLC Ltd thanks every individual participant for the enormous exquisite response. This inspires us to continue organizing events and conferences for further research in the field of infectious diseases.

      Conference Series LLC Ltd is glad to announce its “8th International Congress on Infectious Diseases, which will be held during February 15-16, 2021 at London, UK. We cordially welcome all the eminent researchers, Training Institutes, Young researchers, Data Management Companies, Hospital General Counsel, Legal Nurse Consultants, Manufacturing Medical Devices Companies, students and delegates to take part in this upcoming conference to witness invaluable scientific discussions and contribute to the future innovations in the field of infectious diseases with 20% abatement on the Early Bird Prices.

      Bookmark your dates for “Infection Congress 2021, London” as the Nominations for Best Poster Awards and Young Researcher Awards are open across the world.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 2 - 2

      Study of the iron chelating effect of green tea in smear positive TB patients using sputum smear, serum malondialdehyde and blood iron indices

      Shahryar Eghtesadi

      A new facile and scalable approach for utilizing basic ionic Green tea with possessing iron chelating properties can be useful in TB treatment and management. We studied the effect of green tea consumption on iron status and improving process of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment (accelerating the negative sputum smear, reducing the level of oxidative stress). Following the approval by Ethics Committee for Human Studies of Golestan and Tehran Universities of Medical Sciences and also obtaining the written consent of patients, this double-blinded randomized clinical trial study, was conducted on patients with TB, who were assigned randomly to the intervention group (41 patients) receiving 500mg catechin of green tea extract and the control group (39 subjects) receiving placebo for two months, since the beginning of concomitant anti-TB treatment. Sputum evaluation was carried out on three slides using the Ziehl Nelson method. At first, the demographic and dietary intake data were obtained. After obtaining 10ml of venous blood, hemoglobin (Hb), transferrin, ferritin, Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC), Iron and Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Sputum samples were collected from the third week (every 10 days) and the reduction of microbial load was also tested until sputum smear became negative. Data were processed using independent and paired t-test, McNemar, Wilcoxon, Kaplan-Meier, Log-rank test and Cox regression model. P-value was taken significant as <0.05. Average daily energy intake of patients was 1518±431kcal, distribution of which was as follow: carbohydrates (58%), protein (17%) and fat (22%). Vitamin D and Zinc intake of patients were less and iron intake was higher than the DRI. Weight changes in both groups of placebo and green tea had tendency of increase with a significant difference at two and six month follows ups (p╦?0.0001).

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 3 - 3

      The first identification of tula hantavirus in Iran

      Aude Lalis

      The control and prevention of rodent-borne diseases is mainly based on our knowledge of the infectious status of their reservoir hosts and on their identification. Small mammals including rodents, shrews, moles and bats are reservoirs of hantaviruses. Although the majority of hanta viral infections are reported from east Asian countries such as Korea and China, the infection has also been reported in the Middle-East countries including Iran. As the first attempt looking for evidence of hantavirus reservoir in Iran, this study aimed to investigate hantaviral infection in rodents from East-Azerbaijan Province, Northwest of Iran in 2017 and 2018 in collaboration with Pasteur Institute of Iran. Spleen and lung samples were obtained from 200 trapped small mammals and were used for rodent identification and molecular detection of hantaviruses. The results of Pan-hantavirus nested RT-PCR and sequence analysis showed the presence of Tula hantavirus RNA in one lung specimen of glirid rodent belonging to the genus dryomys nitedula. Phylogenetic analysis showed the similarity of the Tula virus identified in this study with Tula hantavirus strains from Turkey. This study for the first time showed Tula virus infection in Iran and in dryomys nitedula as the first formal record from a non-murid rodents. The current study not only is the first genetic identification of any hantavirus circulating in Iran, it is also the first report of a hantaviral infection (Tula virus) in a rodent in this country.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 4 - 4

      An inbuilt real-time check for mask fit and respirator protection for healthcare workers and emergency responders

      C Orapinpatipat, J Imms, A Birrell and A Virr

      Background: In a respiratory protection program, the practice of mask Fit Testing for tight fitting respirators is best practice for most international respiratory protection standards. Fit Testing (either through a qualitative or quantitative method) is widely used as a determinant of how well the respirator protects the wearer and is conducted with new staff followed by annual re-testing. Many high-risk industries (healthcare, laboratories and emergency services) are required to report on their comprehensive annual Fit Testing programs with large, remote or mobile teams. For these organizations Fit Testing can be a lengthy, costly and technically complex logistical process which restricts its use on a more frequent basis in the workplace. When conducted annually this leaves long periods during which the wearer’s mask fit may change (facial hair or weight loss) resulting in a deterioration in protection offered by the respirator. Even without material facial changes, studies have reported high failure rates from day to day for passive masks (N95s) even when fitted by trained personnel. Practically, employers need an easier, faster and inexpensive daily check (between annual Fit Tests) to ensure staff are adequately protected or as an early alert for when staff may need to be re-fitted for their mask. 


      Methodology: CleanSpace Respirators were used in this study. CleanSpace is a new generation in respiratory protection incorporating the proprietary AirSensit™ technology that monitors the mask pressure 100 times per second to maintain positive pressure during use. The system is dynamic and can detect minute changes in mask leak and resistance. Bluetooth™ enabled respirator devices were used in conjunction with TSI Portacount® Fit Testing. The study involved 700 participants. A mathematical model was developed using the device metrics (pressure, motor speed and power) captured during testing. Device data was segmented into good fit (Fit Factor>1000), marginal fit (Fit Factor 500 –1000) and poor fit (Fit Factor less 500). Device data was captured and transferred via Bluetooth® to a mobile handset. 


      Results: Data analysis demonstrated a correlation to the TSI Portacount® Fit Testing results and indicated protection had a high predictive factor. 
      Conclusion: This is the first time a methodology has been described for an inbuilt indicator of mask fit, run by the wearer, in the field. This check could be conducted by the user using a  mobile app, quickly and inexpensively. Results could be uploaded for remote record keeping by the employer. This methodology would not replace, but would work in conjunction with, traditional annual quantitative Fit Testing. A fast real time check on the job can provide an early warning system for the wearer for poor fitted masks, allowing immediate feedback to adjust and refit the mask-thus reducing the risk of exposure and increasing respiratory safety in the field.
       

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 5 - 5

      Impact of antibiotics in treatment of oral health and our society

      Farrah Bilal, Roomana Afrooz and Mishal Bilal

      The discovery and use of antibiotics has ward off many losses of lives, upgrade health care practice, and gave new directions to public health for various disease control. Antibiotics practice widely used now a day in dental practice for treatment of acute odontogenic and non-odontogenic infections and as a prophylactic purpose for focal infections in patients at possibility for infective endocarditis development as well as for local infections & prevention of surgical infection of wounds. Oral and dental diseases, like chronic diseases are straightaway connected to style of living. Oro-dental problems can be contemplated as a problem of Public Health because of its greater pervasiveness and its societal effects. Persistent dental disease may cause threat to teeth retention, and has somatic, emotive and financial effects. It can also alter the physical appearance and diet patterns. The patterns of routine daily life and social and personal relationships will also acquire negative effects. These regrettable effects lead to reduced life quality. Main objective find out different novel ideas to control the infectious oral diseases and utilization of antibiotics. A descriptive survey based study was carried out, to evaluate the patterns of antibiotic prescription among the different the private dental clinical settings of Pakistan. Sample size was 500 prescriptions which were gathered during eight months study (Jan-Aug 2019). A proforma was used for recording all required demographic & prescribing data was designed to collect all information associated to antibiotic prescribing trend.

      Results: A total of 500 prescriptions were collected from various Dental clinics. Among the study, 58.7% patients were male and 41.3 % females and more frequent age group was 51-68 (39%). Mostly patients have pervious medication history (38.8%) and most common diagnosis was periodontal abscess (16.7%) observed during our study followed by pulpitis (15.9%). The trend observed was that majority 88.1% would prescribe antibiotics for patients who presented with elevated body temperature. Commonly 5 drugs per prescription prescribed (26.7%) least numbers of drugs prescribed per prescription is 2(5.9%). Analgesics are frequently prescribed drug category (22.3%) followed by antibiotics (21.8%) Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid was mostly used (35.5%) during our study, followed by metronidazole 34.1% and oral medications more frequently prescribed in these dental centres.

      Conclusion: Although the results of this study show that mostly prescribed antibiotics in accordance with the recommendations on the type of antibiotic.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 6 - 6

      Evaluation of the potency of some antibiotic formulations in the Egyptian market

      Afaf Sobhi Eladl

      Interest in searching and developing new antimicrobial agents to combat microbial resistance has been growing recently. Therefore, a greater attention has been paid to both screening and evaluation methods of antibiotics activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the potency of some antibiotics containing pharmaceutical products of some Egyptian market companies using microbiological assay based on agar diffusion method and using standard strains in order to determine their therapeutic efficacy.

      These antibiotics such as gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin and ceftriaxone were purchased from local pharmacies and evaluated in the current study.

       The results of this study showed the relative potency of gentamicin was 41.4%-120% and 28%-41% for ciprofloxacin. While for doxycycline relative potency was 26%-72.6% and 16%-88% for Amoxicillin. As well as ceftriaxone potency was ranged between 48%-97.4%. One product of ceftriaxone, two products from gentamicin and two from amoxicillin were estimated to be within the acceptable range of bioequivalence (80%-120%), while the other products showed unacceptable relative potency.  A complaint reporting system about quality and effectiveness problems needs to be considered as a priority source of such information to inform decision-makers.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 7 - 7

      Comparative analysis of infectious and non-infectious etiology of diarrhoea in immunocompetent patients and those with HIV-infection/AIDS (5-year study)

      Georgi Popov and Radina Andonova

      Introduction: Diarrhoea is a serious source of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Among the elderly the most risky for a severe course are patients over 65 years, as well as those with chronic diseases. Diarrhoea also prevails among patients with compromised immunity, especially those with HIV/AIDS. It is the most common gastrointestinal symptom among them.

      Aim: The aim of the study is a comparative analysis of infectious and non-infectious etiology of diarrhoea in immunocompetent patients (control group) and those with HIV/AIDS.

      Materials & Methods: A retrospective analysis was presented, conducted for five years (2012-2017) in the Department of "Infectious Diseases", MMA-Sofia and Hospital for infectious and parasitic diseases, Sofia. Included were 98 patients with diarrhoea, divided into two groups-HIV/AIDS and control. The methods used are: clinical study, laboratory and statistical.

      Results: Of the 98 patients mentioned, 47(48%) are immunocompetent, middle-aged 46.9±15.1, of whom 23(48.9%) women and 24(51.1%) men. With a proven infectious agent are 80.9%, with predominantly bacterial etiology 86.8% (S. Enteritidis (26.3%), C. difficile (18.4%)). Non-infectious are 19.1%. Of all patients, 51(52%) are with a proven HIV-infection, middle-aged 34.7±11.1, of whom 8(15.7%) women and 43(84.3%) men. With a proven infectious agent are 54.9%, and 45.1% are non-infectious. Mycotic infections were 60.8%, followed by protozoal (21.4%).

      Conclusion: Patients from control group have predominantly infectious etiology, with leading bacterial agents. Among HIV-seropositive, half of the cases are non-infectious, possibly with HIV-enteropathy. Infectious cases are with leading mycotic and protozoal pathogens.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 8 - 8

      Prevalence of hepatitis A, B, C and D infections among Bulgarian prison inmates

      Georgi Popov and Radina Andonova

      Background: Prison inmates are among the high risk population for blood born infections such as HIV, HBV, HCV, HDV and other contagious diseases. 

      Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HDV and examine risk factors for those infections among inmates of Bulgarian prisons. 

      Methods: This study was carried out in 5 of the 11 Bulgarian prisons (for men and women) and a juvenile correctional facility. Anonymous cross-sectional data were collected for prisoners who agreed to participate in the study and who were interviewed using a standard questionnaire including demographic, imprisonment history and viral hepatitis and HIV related risk behaviors items. Thereafter, the blood drawn from the participants was tested for anti-HAV; anti-HBc, HBsAg and HBeAg; anti-HCV and anti-HDV by appropriate commercial ELISA kits. 

      Results: A total number of 788 inmates (mean age: 32.8±12.6 years, range: 14-82 years) participated in our study. Five hundred and sixty two (71.3%) were men and two hundred and twenty six (28.7%) were women (M/F ratio: 3.5/1). The overall rate of antibody positivity for anti-HAV was 586(74.3%), anti-HBc-452 (57.4%), anti-HCV-204 (25.9%) and anti-HDV-84 (10.6%). Two hundred and fifty eight (32.7%) prisoners had co-infections of HBV, HCV and HDV. The presence of huge number of prisoners with viral hepatitis B and C are due to use of i.v. drugs, unprotected sexual contacts, tattoo and other manipulations with skin and mucosa lesions (p<0.01). 

      Conclusions: This study show higher prevalence of blood borne infections among prison inmates in comparison with the general population in Bulgaria suggesting their probable transmission in prisons through intravenous drug use, unsafe sexual behaviour and tattooing. Implementation of appropriate screening tests and preventive programs is suggested during and following incarceration

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 9 - 9

      Control and prevention of dengue (Aedes aegypti) and malarial (Anopheles stephensi) vectors

      Imran Ahmed, Shabab Nasir, Farhat Jabeen and Faisal Hafeez

      Mosquitoes act as life threatening disease vectors. Due to non-availability of vaccine and treatment for most of these diseases, the only solution is to control the mosquitoes. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance (in vector species), biological magnification (of toxic substances through the food chain) and adverse effects (on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health). So, under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis is given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control such as use of selective insecticides, plant extracts and Bti. During the current study, plant samples were collected from Faisalabad for oil and aqueous extraction. Mosquito larvae were collected from different habitats such as industrial, non-industrial area, sewage, pond, fields and land water and brought to Government College University, Faisalabad for rearing and identification. After identification, Aedes mosquitoes were reared and treated with different plant extracts, growth regulators and Bti. Six concentrations of each treatment were applied against 2nd and 3rd instars larvae. The data was collected to check knock down affect after 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 hours respectively. The data was analyzed through ANOVA to find significant factors (plant extracts, synthetic insecticides and Bti) contributing for mortality. After screening experiments, different significant oil and water extracts, insecticides and Bti were tested in combination to test their efficacy against Aedes larvae. Again mortality data was collected and subjected to probit analysis to calculate LC50. In the mixing trials, the highest (100%) mortality was observed with those solution having insecticides and Bti. The least value of LC50 (1.3-40 ppm) and LT50 (0.35-0.83hrs) was observed with solution of ether extracts, Bti and insecticides for Aedes larvae. We need to adopt advanced techniques for dengue vector control such as application of significant plant extracts, significant insecticides and Bti for excellent and sustainable control. By adopting these techniques we should able to manage the populations of Aedes in the environment.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 10 - 10

      Increased STI/UTI prevalence rates in Uganda

      Kiyemba Ronald

      Statement of Problem: On average, a typical Ugandan female will have an infection once a month. And in outpatients departments out of every 10 females will complain of symptoms pointing to infection. Most of these infections are more of community acquired than nosocomial. By 2011,a report was published and the prevalence rate stood at 13.3%,and it keeps going high every year.so much funds have been spent on antibiotics which could have been avoided, some of the key points to note. In the urban settings where populations are rising, shared toilet settings which play a great role in its spread due to the female anatomy as opposed to the rural settings which have the put latrines which are of less threat abuse. Where they're poorly controlled by the system highly humid and high temperature s which favored buildup of bacteria leading to these infections The country's location at the equator, making it highly humid and high temperatures which favored buildup of bacteria leading to these infections Promiscuous nature due to culture, where one has multiple sexual partners, and the middle aged citizens having several partners at ago. Antibiotic abuse, where they're poorly controlled by  the systems , self-medication is so rampant as the antibiotics  are easy to reach and the  infections  end  up  being  poorly managed, leading to reoccurrence and resistance. High levels of poverty directly connecting to poor personal hygiene. where the population can't steer clear of  the infections. Limited access to health services leading to those untreated spreading it further.

      Conclusion: Government should improve awareness, and educate more its citizens on prevention and control of these infections, monitoring antibiotic sales as this will greatly lead to reduction and elimination of recurring infections African homesteads using locally available herbal therapy through the family concept.

      Value Added Abstracts Pages: 11 - 11

      The family concept for management of STDs in communities of Ugandan homesteads

      Kiyemba Ronald

      Statement of the Problem: The family concept brings parents, siblings and extended family members such as aunts, uncles and grandparents into the treatment process within the African community Homesteads. In Uganda, utilization of ethno botanical indigenous knowledge is becoming an integral part in management of local diseases within the basic family social setup. Youth participation together, collaborating with the extended family members through urban, rural school settings and local gatherings, sports bonanzas have advocated for herbal therapy as an avenue for preventing and treating some of the STDs. Expansion of STD screening & treatment programs to schools, sports centers, CBOs and peer educators is likely to be critical in the overall control of STDs in our African family setups.

      Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Consultation and reviews on articles and references related to the subject matter was done. Objective mobilization of youth to participate among families in directly managing STDs within the local communities/centers/schools.

      Treating Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in local family setup using herbal therapy/medicines. Repeated School Based Screening (RSBS) for STD was applied in a total of 7 schools; 3 urban and 4 rural. All students in secondary were educated, counseled, some received direct treatment, single dose therapy (Azithromycin 500mg stat) Modified (RSBS) was used at three sports centre and CBOs were similar techniques were administered interventional. Five ministerial local churches were included in the study (2 urban & 3 rural).

      Findings: 7 schools-(1010) urban respondents and 185 rural from primary and secondary schools were interviewed and screened for STDs and treated. 28 questionnaires were given to a local urban CBO. The modified RSBS used for the sports centers showed that 88 respondents, 52(63.4%) were knowledgeable about STD and participated locally in peer led education programmes. 32(36.6%) were not sure of the subject on STDs. Herbal therapy was theoretically available within the homesteads with informal and formal literature on the usage and local formulation, we however failed to evaluate efficiency after administration lacking the appropriate technical & technological support. Churches had conflicting information on the issue of sensitization vs. treatment of STDs. Belief in herbal therapy for STDs was only supported by the elderly who had knowledge on their local effects and practices as per their experience.

      Conclusion: It’s clear we need to do local interventions to help teenagers make good decisions which will lead to increase good safe sexual behavior and clear knowledge on prevention of STDs. Herbal therapy in treatment and prevention of STDs is challenging in the field of health promotion requiring patience, technology and sensitization to the recipients with within their local community setups.

      Significance: Expansion of STD screening and treatment programs to schools, sports centers, CBOs and peer educators is a critical step in sensitization, control and treatment of STDs in African homesteads using locally available herbal therapy through the family concept.

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