Ofosu Ntiamoah David*, Asamoah Akwasi, Tuekpe Mawuli Ransford, Ankoma Rachel, Amaniampong Nana Boahemaa and Yeboah Freda
Background: Malaria is considered one of the highest killer diseases caused by a protozoan parasite of a severity of genus Plasmodium. The symptoms of malaria appear similarly with symptoms of other diseases and have posed a huge problem in terms of accurate and rapt diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity values of two diagnostic tools; malaria microscopy and rapid diagnostic test kits (using three different RDTs) in the diagnosis of malaria.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on patients at the Holy Family Hospital at Berekum in the Bono East Region of Ghana. One hundred and fifty-five (155) participants were recruited. Their blood samples were taken. The participants were tested for malaria using the Histidine Rich Protein-2 (HRP-2) antigen based RDTs (Carestart, SD-Bioline and First Response) and malaria microscopy was also performed for all participants.
Results: All three RDTs had a 100% sensitivity value and a 98.5% specificity value. The reported positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 92.5% and 100% respectively for all RDTs. All three RDTs had a 95.4% agreement with microscopy.
Conclusion: The studies showed that malaria RDTs used in the region and microscopies were comparable in the diagnosis of malaria.
The use of theranostics has piqued the interest of modern scientists. In recent years, researchers have attempted to capitalise on theranostics' potential applications in a variety of fields. Theranostics is a broad field of science that seeks to develop complex diagnostic and therapeutic agents. It is also established that when these cutting-edge systems are combined into a single platform, they are capable of bridging the biodistribution and site specificity gap between imaging molecules and therapeutic agents. At the moment, theranostics uses nanotechnology to deliver active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to absorption sites, resulting in increased bioavailability. In addition to the benefits mentioned above, theranostics have been proposed to be potentially effective in a variety of ailments, particularly cancer, malaria, microbial diseases, and cardiovascular diseases through the use of MNPs. Furthermore, theranostics are important in personalised medicine because they can be developed based on biomarker identification. Because of their versatility, MPNs are among the most promising diagnostic and therapeutic entities in modern medicine. Recently, there has been a significant increase in the biosynthesis of MNPs from medicinal plants, which is critical for the development of theranostics. Medicinal plants are a dependable and necessary source of natural bioactive compounds.
DOI: DOI: 10.37421/2470-6965.2022.11.187
Introduction: Malaria is a life threatening disease caused by plasmodium parasites that are transmitted to people through the bite of an infected female anopheles mosquito. Malaria during pregnancy is dangerous to the mother and fetus. This study is aimed at determining the perception that pregnant women have towards insecticide treated mosquito nets. Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) are considered one of the most effective interventions against malaria and have been endorsed by the World Health Organization for the global anti-malaria efforts.
Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at Buchi cinic from February 2022 to April, 2022. Semi structured questionnaires were used to collect data from consenting pregnant women. Data was entered on a computer and analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 26.
Results: A total number of 195 participants consented to taking part in this study and were interviewed. Majority of the participants were between the ages of 20-35 (60.2%). Most of the women (67.2%) had good knowledge, and majority (71.3%) had good attitude towards ITNs. Additionally the reasons for non-usage of ITNs were; discomfort, low mosquito activity/season and not enough room.
Conclusion: Majority of the participants in this study had good perception, good knowledge and good attitudes towards ITNs.
Jelena Boskovic Sekulic, Vojislav Alempijevic, Nemanja Rancic, Dejan Kostic, Jugoslav Marinkovic and Igor Sekulic*
The aim of this manuscript is to bring our experience from Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic malarial area, during the COVID-19 pandemic. We present two cases treated at MINUSCA level 2+ hospital in Bangui, central African republic, during December 2021 and January 2022. COVID-19 and malaria infection were confirmed by appropriate tests. First case is man, 36 years old, who came to hospital, complaining about muscle pain, headache and fiver. Second case is a man, 41 years old, who came to hospital due to fiver, caught and malaise. Symptoms started to appear a day ago. We can conclude that in malaria endemic areas, in light of existing COVID-19 pandemia, based on similar symptoms characteristic of both diseases, it is essential to suspect both diseases and keep in mind the possibility of coinfection. Therefore a patient with uncharacteristic infectious symptoms should be tested for malaria, so as well for COVID-19 infection.
Modern scientists are interested in the use of theranostics. Researchers have attempted to take advantage of theranostics' potential applications in a variety of fields in recent years. The development of complex diagnostic and therapeutic agents is the goal of the broad science of theranostics. It is also established that these cutting-edge systems can bridge the bio distribution and site specificity gap between imaging molecules and therapeutic agents when combined into a single platform. Nanotechnology is currently utilized in theranostics to deliver APIs to absorption sites, resulting in increased bioavailability. Through the use of MNPs, theranostics have been proposed to be effective in a variety of diseases, particularly cancer, malaria, microbial diseases, and cardiovascular diseases, in addition to the benefits previously mentioned. In addition, theranostics are important for personalised medicine because they can be made by identifying biomarkers. MPNs are one of modern medicine's most promising diagnostic and therapeutic entities due to their adaptability. The biosynthesis of MNPs from medicinal plants has recently increased significantly, which is important for the development of theranostics. Natural bioactive compounds come from medicinal plants, which are a reliable and necessary source.
The world's enormous relationship between fauna and flora today is caused by many things, including the largest ever increase in population and the expansion of transportation infrastructure. These forces break down boundaries in biogeography, causing species to first appear in unfamiliar environments. The Americas are expected to suffer damage worth more than $120 billion annually as a result of these species' invasion. Pandemics and epidemics caused by arthropods have the potential to spread lethal viruses and parasites, posing a threat to the world's expanding human and animal populations.
Plasmodium falciparum-caused malaria is life-threatening and continues to be a global concern. According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) report, this disease affects hundreds of millions of people annually. There were approximately 247 million cases of malaria reported in 2022. Female anopheles mosquitoes, which bite between dusk and dawn, carry this disease. Additionally, they are referred to as "night-biting" mosquitoes. The rapid diagnostic test (RDT), clinical diagnosis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and microscopic diagnosis are some of the methods used to identify malaria. The capabilities of the available human determine the efficacy of conventional diagnostic techniques like PCR and clinical testing.
Control, elimination, and eradication of malaria are one of the world’s greatest public health challenges, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa.The expectation of producing an effectivevaccine has been on for 40 years, but the recent breakthrough announcement of a malaria vaccine showing some level of protection among infants and children 3-4 years post vaccination seems like an excellent starting point. The globally accepted strategy for the control of malaria rely on chemotherapy, but unfortunately the overreliance on chemotherapy without proper control of drug usage and diagnosis has encouraged the selection of drug-resistant parasites, significantly contributing to the problem. Therefore, the prospects of malaria eradication rest heavily on integrated approaches that would include chemotherapy, vector control, and manipulation of environmental and ecological characteristics, and vaccination.
The objectives of this study are to describe the malaria situation in Ghana and give a brief account of how mathematical modelling techniques could support a more informed malaria control effort in the Ghanaian context. A review is carried out of some mathematical models investigating the dynamics of malaria transmission in subSaharan African countries, including Ghana. Collaboration between malaria control experts and modellers will allow for more appropriate mathematical models to be developed. A core set of intervention and treatment options are recommended by the World Health Organization for use against falciparum malaria.
The World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme, in keeping with its mandate to set evidence-informed policies for malaria control, has convened the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee as a mechanism to increase the timeliness, transparency, independence and relevance of its recommendations to World Health Organization member states in relation to malaria control and elimination.As a result, there is a growing need for the malaria policy setting process to rapidly review increasing amounts of evidence.
During the last decade, substantial progress has been made in controlling malaria worldwide through the large-scale implementation of effective malaria interventions. The magnitude of this progress has led some malaria-endemic countries, even those with historically high burdens of malaria, to consider the possibility of malaria elimination. Malaria elimination is defined as the reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts. Significant progress has been achieved in malaria control worldwide over the past decade. Increased financial support for malaria programs has enabled impressive reductions in transmission in many endemic regions. These successes have stimulated renewed discussion of how, when, and where malaria can be eliminated.
Malaria is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) world malaria report for 2018, there were 228 million cases and 405,000 deaths worldwide.Background The efficient allocation of financial resources for malaria control using appropriate combinations of interventions requires accurate information on the geographic distribution of malaria risk. An evidence-based description of the global range of Plasmodium falciparum malaria and its endemicity has not been assembled in almost 40 y. This paper aims to define the global geographic distribution of P. falciparum malaria in 2007 and to provide a preliminary description of its transmission intensity within this range. Methods and Findings The global spatial distribution of P. falciparum malaria was generated using nationally reported case-incidence data, medical intelligence, and biological rules of transmission exclusion, using temperature and aridity limits informed by the bionomics of dominant Anopheles vector species.
Background: Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic carriers are potential reservoirs contributing to the persistence of malaria transmission in endemic areas. The study was designed to assess the extent of Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic infection at household and individual levels and associated risk factors in Northern Côte d’Ivoire.
Methodology: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in July 2016 at household level in the health district of Korhogo. A questionnaire was administered to household’s head to capture socio-demographic information and practices including malaria treatment and preventive measures. In each household, adults without malaria symptoms or history of fever during the week before recruitment were screened. Capillary blood samples were collected and used for the detection of Plasmodium spp. infections using both conventional microscopy and a loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) assay. Logistic regression was used to determine variables that influenced Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic infections.
Findings: In total, 376 households and 1’011 asymptomatic adults were screened. Asymptomatic Plasmodium spp. infections were identified in 12.5% [47/376] and 38.3% [144/376] of the households and in 5.2% [53/1011] and 18.8% [190/1011] of the individuals screened, according to microscopy and LAMP, respectively. At household level, asymptomatic carriers increased about two times when using mosquito repellent coils compared to those where it is not used (OR: 1.8; p=0.005). At individual level, men’s risk to be infected was about two times that of women (OR: 1.9; p<0.001). The odd to be infected was also two times higher in population living in periurban areas compared to those living in the urban centre (OR: 2.3; p<0.001). Additionally, age appear to be risk factor, with younger individuals being at higher risk of infection than elders (OR: 0.5; p=0.001).
Conclusion: Plasmodium spp. asymptomatic carriers are important in Northern Côte d’Ivoire and male, age under 30 and periurban living area appear as significant risk factors. Interventions aiming malaria elimination in the study context should primarily target among other strategies, asymptomatic infections and periurban zones.
Andre Sominahouin, Roseric Azondekon, Sahabi Bio Bangana, Casimir Kpanou, Germain Gil Padonou, Razaki Osse, BenoÃ®t Assogba, Fiacre Agossa, Filemon Tokponon, Martin C. Akogbeto.
Background: Malaria transmission is based on four essential elements: the vector, the parasite, humans and the environment. However, of the four elements, the
environment is not sufficiently exploited.
Methods: In the research presence carried out in 6 localities in North Benin, we used a microscopic vision of the health geographer, focusing on certain components
of geography, entomology and meteorology to show what to show spatial disparities in malaria transmission using Arcgis 10.4, Global Mapper and SPSS 21.0 for
regression and correlation analysis.
Results: The results of our research show that the slopes are unstable. Also, the lower the altitude the lower the water kinetics and consequently a lot of water
stagnation favourable for the development of mosquito breeding sites. The explanatory power of the regression model means that 54.3% of the variation in positive
mosquito breeding is explained by human population density.
Conclusions: Benin must make significant progress in the elimination of malaria using a new effort to understand the ecology of vector mosquitoes based on spatial
disparities in the fight against malaria.
Kefa S Sum
Knockdown resistance (kdr) associated with single point mutation at the residue L1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc)
gene in Anopheles gambiae s.l. is one of the known mechanisms of resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. This has emerged as a real threat to the continued effective use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) that rely mostly on pyrethroids as the active ingredient to control malaria vectors. There is, therefore, need for continuous monitoring the occurrence of vectors and development of alternative insecticide formulations as a strategy to manage kdr resistance and to sustain the use of this important technologies in malaria vector control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from Kisian, Ahero and Kipsitet, which are malaria endemic sites in western area of Kenya. The sibling species were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while genotyping for kdr mutation in the IIS4-IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc was done using real time
PCR (RT-PCR). Susceptibility of the wild An. gambiae s.l and pink eyed An. gambiae s.s with fixed kdr resistance genes to synergized natural pyrethrum formulation
was assessed using WHO impregnated papers. Bioassay data data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) while those with coefficient of variation (CV) of >15% were transformation into logarithms before analysis. Treatment means were compared using least significant difference (LSD, P=0.05).
All the mosquitoes obtained from Kipsitet and Ahero areas were An. Arabiensis while in Kisian, 73% were An. arabiensis and 27% were An. gambiae s.s. No kdr genes
were detected in the An. arabiensis while there was 100% frequency of the L1014S kdr mutation in the An. gambiae s.s. Natural pyrethrum formulation achieved
significantly (P=0.0001) higher kill than pyrethroids against An. gambiae s.s. with kdr genes. High susceptibility of the An. gambiae s.s. with kdr mutation and wild
phenotypes to the synergized pyrethrum formulation provides crucial evidence for practical management of the spreading kdr and other resistance mechanisms to
pyrethroids in malaria vectors. The apparent lack of kdr resistance genes detected in An. arabiensis is proposed as a subject for further research.
Transmission of malaria determines receptivity and vulnerability characteristics of an area. As indigenous malaria cases in Nepal have declined in recent years, the number of imported cases, largely from India, has increased. In the context of increasing, trend of imported cases of malaria transmission in Nepal, it is important to understand the nature of imported cases of malaria and its vulnerability. The overall objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability associating transmission of malaria among migrants in province 5. Methods and Martials: Study designs have been descriptive and analytical, study populations have been all investigated imported cases, 159 sample sizes have been taken and secondary sources have been used for data collection. Department of health services, Epidemiology and diseases control Division has been providing data. Results: Must vulnerable age founded age group 15-59 years and mean age was found 28 ±11. Occupation was found to be statistically significantly associated with malaria species (p<0.01). Similarly, previous infection was also found to be associated with malaria species, which was statistical significant at p<0.01. Occupation was also found statistically significantly associated with use of preventive measures at p<0.01 level. Similarly duration of stay was found to be statistically significantly associates with use of preventive measures at p<0.05 level. Occupation was found statistical significantly associated with a previous history of malaria at p<0.05 level. Ethnicity was found statistical associated with treatment with national malaria treatment protocol, which was significant at p<0.05 level. Duration of stay was found statistically associates with treated with national malaria treatment protocol, which was significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusion: Must vulnerable age group was found 15-59 years group. With gender, males use less preventive measures as compared to female. Majority of Janjatis have not treated of their previous infection with national malaria treatment protocol. With occupation, labor was found must vulnerable for transmission of malaria than other occupational group. Those who stay less than 6 months or frequently visited different places were must vulnerable transmission of malaria infection.
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