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Journal of Surgical Pathology and Diagnosis

Open Access

Article in Press

Volume 2, Issue 1 (2019)

    Review Article Pages: 1 - 3

    Minor Surgical Procedures Required for Establishing Diagnosis in Neuropathology in Children: Ideal Procedure, Indications and Contraindications-A Brief Review

    Prateek Kumar Panda

    In clinical neurological practice, histopathological diagnosis is often required for establishing definitive diagnosis of various neuromuscular disorders and neurodegenerative disorders like neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. To obtain the tissue specimen required for putting histopathological stains, various minor surgical procedures are often carried out by the clinicians. These include nerve biopsy, muscle biopsy and skin biopsy. A clinician needs to be aware of the ideal procedure, proper clinical indications, perioperative and postoperative care of patients undergoing these minor surgical procedures. This review article provides a brief review of the above three procedures in a concise manner. Muscle biopsy is usually carried out in children with suspected muscular dystrophies and myopathies, and the most common site is vastus lateralis. Similarly nerve biopsy is carried out in children with suspected hereditary and acquired peripheral neuropathies from sural nerve. Skin biopsy is usually carried out from axilla, in children with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis to demonstrate auto florescent granules and fingerprint/curvilinear or rectilinear inclusions.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

    Role of Lung Ultrasound in Diagnosing and Grading Pulmonary Congestion in Heart Failure Patients

    Ayman Sadek, Mohamad Ahmad Mosaad, Ibrahim Abdel Fattah Yassin and Taher Said

    We enrolled 58 cardiomyopathic patients and 20 normal individuals admitted to Dar Al-Fouad hospital complaining of NYHA class III-IV, with evidence of pulmonary congestion. All patients underwent lung ultrasound. A comparison of the LUS results was done to 20 COPD patients with no history of cardiac disease. The mean age of control was 33.80; the mean age of patients was 54.03.The mean ejection fraction in the control group is 61.40, with the lowest ejection fraction 58%. The mean ejection fraction in the subject group 40.72, with the lowest ejection fraction 22% A statistical difference in lung ultrasound B lines total count (Sum) was found between the control and subjects. The mean number of B lines in the control group is 1.9, with the lowest and highest count 0 and 4 respectively. The mean number of B lines in the subject group is 54.95 with the lowest and highest count 13 and 130 respectively. The number of B-lines correlated well with E/e’ value with a positive correlation coefficient (r=0.837 p<0.0001) and a positive linear curve, which indicates its usefulness in diagnosing hemodynamic and pulmonary congestion. The number of B-lines correlated well with NT-proBNP >2000 pg/mL for congestion with a positive correlation coefficient (r=0.638, p<0.0001) and a positive linear curve, which indicates its usefulness in diagnosing pulmonary congestion. When compared to results of COPD patients, the difference was significant with ease of differentiation using lung ultrasound.

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