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Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 4, Issue 2 (2021)

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    AI in Neurosurgery

    Sharvari Desai*

                       AI in Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science that has found success in analyzing complex medical data and extracting meaningful relationships from datasets for a variety of clinical purposes. Specifically, in the field of brain care, several novel approaches have yielded impressive results and opened up new avenues for diagnosis, planning, and outcome prediction neurosurgery Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have climbed to the top of the list of most commonly used analytical tools. Support vector machines and random forests, for example, are also widely used machine learning techniques.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Parkinson Diseases

    Sharvari Desai

    Idiopathic is a term used to describe a condition that is not treatable. With the discovery of many clinical subtypes and pathogenic causes, Parkinson's Disease s a single entity has been questioned. Putative causative environmental agents, as well as chromosomes. Non-motor symptoms may accompany classic motor symptoms. Dopaminergic, noradrenergic, glutamatergic, and other neurotransmitters are all involved.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Acknowledgment

    Mary Scar

    Journal of Clinical Neurology And Neurosurgery is been running successfully till now we have proudly released 3 volumes containing Research Articles, Review Articles, Short Communication, Commentary, Case report, etc. in the year 2020, we received 50 research articles out of which 38 articles got rejected in due to various and valid reason and total 12 articles got published. We with immense pleasure say that researchers of around 40 people all around the world gave us their feedback on our paper. We received articles all around the world most of them from the Asian and European continent.

    Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

    Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery

    Hazel Scarlett*

    Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery is an international journal that publishes papers in the fields of nervous system medicine, Neurobiology, Brain research, Cognitive sciences, and their connections to cerebrum sciences to the cutting edge of applied improvements in regulation.  We have classified your articles into various types for better understanding and easy access to the readers the major article type includes, Research paper, Review paper, Short communication, Case studies, etc.

    Editor’s Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery

    Hazel sacrlet

    Journal of Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery is a high-quality peer-reviewed journal, containing several high-quality and unique articles, accepting manuscripts for Volume 4 Issue 3. This journal covers the wide-area that involves the following topics, but is not limited to radiosurgery, brain injury, trauma

    Volume 4, Issue 3 (2021)

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

      Depression in the Brain as a Result of Covid-19

      Hazel Scarlett*

      COVID 19 is new to humanity; its impact and severity on general health have yet to be determined, although those with chronic illnesses such as asthma, renal diseases, cardiac problems, and the geriatric population have been advised to take extra care. COVID-19 has resulted in both internal and foreign battle for mankind [1]. On the one hand, external forces and the government are addressing individuals in order to preserve social distance, isolation, and other hygienic conditions. On the other side, some segments of society, particularly elderly people, children, and the sick, are grappling inwardly with the prospect of a worsening scenario as a result of the COVID-19 epidemic.

      Short Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

      Screening of Elderly for Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus after Falls

      Hazel Scarlett*

      Many people with idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) have been reported to have fallen before being diagnosed. There have been no previous studies on the prevalence of iNPH among the elderly with a history of falls. The efficacy of screening for iNPH in older patients who present after a fall was examined in this research. The clinical trial of gait disturbance, cognitive impairment, and urine incontinence, as well as ventricular enlargement on neurological imaging, describe idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Clinical care for iNPH is becoming increasingly important in a rapidly ageing population, as the condition is more frequent in the elderly. Among dementing diseases, iNPH is one of the few that can be treated; a Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) shunt has proven to be successful, with clinical improvement reported in 60%-80% of patients. Despite the growing significance of identifying this condition, it is still underdiagnosed, owing to its non-specific symptoms and predominance among the elderly, who are more likely to have other diseases that are similar, leading to diagnostic confusion.

      Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

      Cerebral Oximetry by NIRS: Its Usefulness in TBI

      Hazel Scarlett*

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      Near-infrared spectroscopy is used to measure cerebral oximetry, which offers continuous and non-invasive information on the oxygen saturation of haemoglobin in the central nervous system. This is particularly critical in the case of individuals who have suffered catastrophic brain injuries. Brain oximetry monitoring in these individuals may enable for the identification of insufficient cerebral oxygenation caused by cerebral blood flow abnormalities. It could be able to detect hypoxia and cerebral ischemia events. Continuous bedside monitoring might aid in the early detection of cerebral haemorrhage and cerebrovascular autoregulation problems, as well as therapy implementation. However, it is important to realise that using near-infrared spectroscopy to monitor cerebral oximetry has a number of drawbacks, which are mostly due to its physical characteristics. TBIs are one of the leading causes of death in patients who have been wounded in traffic accidents, falls from great heights, battery, or a firearm attack. TBIs are categorised in a variety of ways. Mild, moderate, and severe injuries are classified according to the severity of the injury. They are divided into two categories: focal injuries and primary diffuse brain injuries, depending on the mechanism of damage. They can occur on their own or as part of a multi-organ injury. A Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) causes a primary brain damage.

      Commentary Pages: 0 - 2

      Use of Dopamine Agonist in Tetanus Spasms : A Novel Approach to Revert the Respiratory Spasm - The Cause of Mortality

      Vinod Kumar Tewari, Abhishek Gupta, Devesh Johari and Lori Tewari

      In tetanus patients Levodopa and Carbidopa combination (which is usually used to relieve the signs of extrapyramidal) causes respiratory muscles spasm relief thereby the need for sedatives is decreased and patient saved later on via central nervous system mechanism, by providing the inhibitory neurotransmitters at Anterior Horn cells. The tetanus toxin initially binds to peripheral nerve terminals then it retrogradely goes to CNS attaches with gangliosides at presynaptic inhibitory motor nerve endings, blocks glycine and gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) across the synaptic cleft.

      Case Reports Pages: 1 - 3

      Use of 10,000-Fold Effect by a Nitric Oxide Donor (Sodium Nitroprusside) in Motor Neuron Disease via Intrathecal Super Fusion

      Vinod Kumar Tewari* , Abhishek Gupta, Devesh Johari and Lori Tewari

      Motor Neuron Disease (MND) or Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a slow fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by selective and gradual motor neuronal death with unknown aetiology. The insufficient clearance of glutamate through the glutamate transporter, and the specific distribution of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors in spinal motor neurons, indicates that glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is involved in its pathogenesis. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which acts via 10000-fold effect to reverse the neuronal death. NO is destructive within 5 to 7 days as noted in earlier study by various authors. We have used intrathecal sodium nitroprusside to activate the 10000-fold effect to modulate the retrograde neuroregulation in MND.

      Volume 4, Issue 4 (2021)

        Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

        Stability of Biomarkers Associated with Alzheimer's Disease by using Immunomagnetic Reduction Assay Reagent

        Hazel Scarlett*

        Bio-fluid biomarker tests for Alzheimer's Disease (AD) have become popular in risk assessment. The quantitative identification of amyloid 1-40 (A1-40), A1-42 and total tau protein (Tau) in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) has piqued the interest of researchers and neurologists as pathological markers of Alzheimer's disease [1]. Many investigations have confirmed that the levels of these CSF biomarkers correspond strongly with the clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. For example, as compared to normal controls, the amount of CSF A1-42 drops while the level of CSF tau increases in AD. Furthermore, the concentration ratio of CSF A1-42 to A1- 40 is consistent with the normal uptake value ratio from Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Despite the clinical importance of CSF biomarker tests, lumbar puncture remains a substantial burden in practise.

        Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

        Interleukin-33 levels in Plasma in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

        Hazel Scarlett*

        Cytokines and chemokines unquestionably have a role in the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Many findings show that Interleukin-33 (IL-33) has a substantial role in the progression of MS, although it is unclear whether this role is negative or positive. As a result, we looked into plasma IL-33 levels in individuals with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a Central Nervous System (CNS) inflammatory and autoimmune disease marked by progressive deterioration. Significant improvements in studies to better understand this illness have been made in recent years. Despite these advancements, the precise underlying physiopathology of MS is only poorly understood. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory and autoimmune disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) that causes gradual degeneration.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

        Apheresis in the Treatment of Neurological Disorders.

        Hazel Scarlett*

        Plasma Exchange (PE) and Immunoadsorption (IA) are key therapeutic options for autoimmune diseases in a variety of medical fields. Their pathophysiological reasoning is primarily based on the elimination of autoantibodies and a favourable immune system regulation. From a theoretical standpoint, apheresis is a promising treatment approach since it works by removing pathogenic components rather than giving medicines that can have serious adverse effects. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) steroidrefractory relapse, myasthenia gravis, Autoimmune Encephalitis (AE), Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS), and Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) are among the neurological indications. Although PE and IA are frequently used in clinical practise, evidence for their efficacy and safety in the aforementioned indications is generally lacking. This is due to the fact that drugs and medical devices are treated differently in terms of regulatory approvals in most countries, that is indication-specific phase III studies are generally not required in order to gain approval. As a result, less is known regarding the efficacy of PE and IA in comparison to other treatment choices and to each other. Similarly, there is a complete dearth of understanding regarding the best treatment regimens for PE and IA.

        Commentary Pages: 1 - 1

        Coffee Consumption has Anti-Effects Alzheimer's

        Hazel Scarlett*

        Coffee is one of the world's most researched and commonly consumed beverages. Coffee is grown mostly in Latin America, Asia, and Africa, and its trade is the second largest after crude oil, with a value of more than $10 billion. The Rubiaceae family has hundreds of different species of coffee. The two species cultivated for commercial purposes are Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. As the general public becomes more aware of their nutrition, several issues about the impact of coffee on their health have arisen. Caffeine, chlorogenic acid, diterpenes, and trigonelline are some of the most frequent bioactive compounds found in coffee.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Patient Satisfaction after Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Cervical Radiculopathy is Predicted by a Number of Factors

        Hazel Scarlett*

        To see if patient satisfaction after anterior cervical spine surgery can be predicted by preoperative Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) and rapid postoperative arm pain alleviation. The researchers conducted a retrospective study of prospectively collected data from 193 patients with cervical radiculopathy who had surgery at Aarhus University Hospital. Preoperatively, postoperatively, and at the 1-year follow-up, standardised questionnaires were utilised to assess demographics, clinical results, and complications. The Visual Analogue Scale for Arm Pain (VAS-AP) and Neck Pain (VAS-NP), the Neck Disability Index (NDI), the EQ-5D 3-level version (EQ5D3L), and satisfaction were all included in PROMs. Medical records were used to compile immediate upper extremity pain status. PROMs improved considerably (p<0.001), and the majority of patients (66%) were happy with the surgical outcome at follow-up. Complications and complaints occurred in 3.6% of intraoperative cases, 1.5% of in-hospital cases, and 43% of post discharge cases. When compared to patients with a symptom duration of less than 24 months, patients with a symptom duration of more than 24 months had substantially lower probabilities of being satisfied.

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