Journal of Hypertension: Open Access

ISSN: 2167-1095

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 10, Issue 3 (2021)

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    The Association of Serum Aldosterone with Sex, Age, and Sodium Status

    Ajay D Rao*, Huaqing Zhao, Ramachandran S Vasan and E Victor Adlin

    Context: In a prior study we observed that adjustment of serum aldosterone for age, sex and sodium status led to confirmation of our hypothesis of bimodality of serum aldosterone in low-renin hypertension; the hypothesis was not statistically supported without this adjustment. Here we aim to further characterize the effect of this statistical adjustment on the normality of the distribution of serum aldosterone.

    Methods: We analyzed data from 1486 normotensive men and women, aged 29 to 85, in the sixth examination cycle of the Framingham Offspring Study. We used independent two sample t-tests, regression of natural-log-transformed values of aldosterone on age, sex, and urinary sodium: creatinine ratio, the dip test for unimodality, dotplots, and Q-Q plots to study the normality of the distribution of aldosterone concentrations with and without statistical adjustment for the covariates listed above.

    Results: The proportion of variability of serum aldosterone concentrations explained by age, sex, and urine sodium:creatinine ratio was 0.91%,1.3%, and 8%, respectively (p > 0.005). The distribution of adjusted serum aldosterone was unimodal (dip test: 2.26 ± 0.17 ng/dL, p = 0.997); when unadjusted, the distribution was not unimodal (dip test: 2.26 ± 0.50 ng/dL, p < 0.00005). The dotplot and Q-Q plot also showed a more normal distribution of serum aldosterone concentrations after adjustment.

    Conclusion: Adjustment of serum aldosterone for age, sex, and urine sodium:creatinine ratio leads to a more normal aldosterone distribution. Further study is needed to determine whether the use of this adjustment in testing for primary aldosteronism may improve the accuracy of clinical testing

    Volume 10, Issue 4 (2021)

      Review Pages: 1 - 5

      Pre-clinical detection of cardiac dysfunction and coronary artery disease in essential hypertension: An update

      Luigi P. Badano , NS Dhalla, Yomna Galal Elkilany, Sherif Baath Allah, Jaipaul Singh, Ram B Singh, Navin C Nanda, Baset Essawy and Jan Fedacko

      Systemic hypertension (HTN) is a syndrome and it can induce other diseases and biochemical abnormalities, including stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure (HF), obesity, kidney failure, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and even death. Epidemiological researches have established that HTN is a powerful contributor to major cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is the single most important preventable cause of premature death in the Western world estimating at 20% of adult population. The quest to find effective treatment, both in terms of blood pressure control and prevention, such as heart attacks and strokes are still on-going. Although clinicians favor the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension in terms of diastolic blood pressure elevation and categorical cut of points, epidemiological data show important influence of systolic blood pressure and associated risk factors that contribute to atherosclerosis predicting clinical HF. Early detection of subclinical myocardial disease among hypertensive population is a holy grail of all cardiologists, but difficult when using the conventional echocardiography (CE). By comparison to CE, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is more specific obtaining longitudinal and circumferential strain, which are able to identify sub clinical myocardial abnormalities with a higher degree of accuracy. This review described the epidemiology of hypertension relating it to cardiovascular events including preclinical detection of cardiac dysfunction in HTN explaining how this could be detected by STE and other imaging modalities. These changes provide new targets for preclinical diagnosis monitoring responses to preventive strategies.

      Research Pages: 1 - 5

      Socio-demographic and Clinical Predictors of Hypertension and Type2 Diabetes among adults Under treatment at Felege Hiwot Teaching and Specialized Hospital, North-western Ethiopia

      Awoke Tegegne, Getu Degu Alene

      Background: One of the chronic diseases all over the world due to its significant contribution for the existence of the other health problems is hypertension. It is known that hypertensive patients also exposed to diabetes. The objective of current investigation was to identify socio- demographic and clinical predictors for the variation of hypertension and type2 diabetes for adults under treatments.

      Methods: In current investigation, a random sample of 748 hypertensive and type2 diabetic patients was selected randomly. A retrospective longitudinal study design was conducted on the selected patients who were receiving treatments for both hypertension and type2 diabetes. 

      Results: The current investigation revealed that age and weight of patients were positively and significantly associated with existence of hypertension and type2 diabetes whereas; visiting times were negatively associated the variables of interests. Rural patients, patients who are smoking, drinking alcohols and patients with family disease history were joint predictors for existence of the variables of interests. The interactions of visiting times with sex, visiting times with residence area and age with sex of patients were also statistically significant factors for the existence of response variables. Hypertensive patients living in rural areas and those who are drinking and smoking were highly affected by the existence of type2 diabetes.

      Conclusion: Awareness should be created to those hypertensive and type2 diabetic patients to attend properly their medication as prescribed by the health staff. Patients should also be advised to checkup their hypertension (systolic/ diastolic) and diabetes of type2 regularly. 

      Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

      Heart Diseases due to Hypertension

      Lalisa M Gadisa

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      Research Pages: 1 - 7

      Practice Toward Prevention Of Hypertension Among Non-Hypertensive Adults At Shashemene Town, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia

      Malgarin Desta, Tilahun Ermeko, Desalegn Bekele and Abate Lette

      Hypertension prevention practices like physical exercise, healthy diet, avoid smoking and reducing alcohol intake play an important role in controlling hypertension. This study was assessed practice toward prevention of hypertension among non-hypertensive adults in Shashemene Town, West Arsi Zone, Ethiopia from August 2019 to September 2019. Methods: A Community based cross-sectional study design was employed on adult age resident of Shashemene town and a multi stage sampling technique was used to select 634 participants. Data was collected using structured questioner and Data collection was conducted by trained college students. The data was edited and entered into Epi-info version 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Descriptive and analytical statistics including Bivariate and multivariate analyses was conducted inorder to check the prediction of associations between dependent and independent variables. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Result: The Overall practice toward prevention of hypertension was 56.52% out of 634 adults. Based on this study doing Physical exercise at least three times per week were 12.2 times (AOR=16.838, 95% CI: 4.769, 31.230); Participants who do not smoke cigarette were 3.1 times (AOR=3.116, 95 CI: 1.206, 8.054); Participants who do not use high amount of salt in their diet were 3.2 times (AOR=3.249, 95% CI 1.837, 5.746) more likely had practice toward prevention of hypertension as compared with others. It also indicated that there is a strong association between practice to prevent hypertension and age, educational status and Source of health information of the study participants Those age group greater than 36 years old were 2.6 times (AOR=2.617, 95% CI: 1.565, 4.375); Respondents with diploma, degree and more education level were 7.7 times (AOR=15.266, 95% CI: 2.643,22.389); Participants who read written material as source of health information were 3.4 times (AOR=3.364, 95% CI:1.718,6.585) more likely had practice toward prevention of hypertension

      Volume 10, Issue 8 (2021)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

        Relationship between Human Gut Microbiota and Nutrition Intake in Hypertensive Discordant Monozygotic Twins

        Rie Tomizawa*, Jonguk Park, Natsuko Matsumoto, Koji Hosomi, Hitoshi Kawashima, Kenji Mizuguchi, Jun Kunisawa and Chika Honda

        Background and Objectives: Intestinal bacteria digest substances, produce metabolites, and influence the host. Blood pressure increases with age, even in healthy people, and hypertension is said to affect one in four people worldwide. It is a major risk factor for stroke and stroke-related death. Although it is known that blood pressure is correlated with the ratio of Firmicutes and Bacteroides in gut microbiota and that the intake of peptides in fermented dairy products lowers blood pressure in humans, the relationship with the gut microbiota at the genus level is still inconsistent. Here, we aimed to examine the association between high blood pressure, gut microbiota, and nutrient intake by removing gender, age, and genetic effects.

        Materials and Methods: We selected hypertensive discordant Japanese monozygotic twins and confirmed their zygosity by matching 15 short tandem repeat loci. Their fecal samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to identify and compare fluctuations in intestinal bacteria.

        Results: Four genera were extracted by comparing age- and gender-unified hypertensive and non-hypertensive groups, and 15 genera: Actinomyces, Butyricicoccus, Coprobacter, Coprococcus 1, Eubacterium fissicatena group, Eubacterium rectale group, Eubacterium ruminantium group, Eubacterium eligens group, Lachnospira, Prevotellaceae UCG 001, Ruminiclostridium 9, Ruminococcaceae NK 4A 214 group, Ruminococcaceae UCG 004, Ruminococcaceae UCG 005 and Ruminococcaceae UCG 014 were extracted by focusing on differences between pairs to account for genetic effects. The correlation between the 15 hypertension-associated bacteria extracted and nutrient intake showed that most minerals, vitamins, and lipids, including plant fatty acids, had a negative correlation with Actinomyces, while some had a positive correlation with the Eubacterium rectale group.

        Conclusions: When comparing monozygotic twins with hypertension discordance, age, sex, and genetic factors were excluded, and 15 hypertension-related genera were extracted, including Actinomyces and Eubacterium rectale group, which were associated with several nutrients

        Research Pages: 1 - 5

        Prevalence of Hypertension among Residents of Ebudu Community in Edo State, Nigeria

        Omoge Adeyemi O*

        Background: Hypertension (also known as high blood pressure) is a condition in which the blood pressure of a person is consistently too high. Hypertension is often called the ‘‘silent killer’’ because it may not present any warning signs or symptoms and therefore may not be detected until another serious medical condition is diagnosed. It is a major risk factor for heart disease, heart failure, and stroke, and can result in other serious medical complications, including blindness and kidney failure.

        Objective: The aim of this study is to discover the prevalence of hypertension among people living in Ebudu Community in Edo, State, Nigeria. Methodology: A systematic random sampling was used in recruiting seventy three (73) persons who participate in this study. The necessary information and blood pressure readings were taken. Results were analyzed using SPSS version 23.

        Results: The mean age of the respondent were 55.25 + 14.53, 20 (27.4%) were between 56 – 65 years, 61 (83.6%) were female, 40 (54.8%) were farmers and 30 (41.1%) had secondary school education. 11 (14.4%) have normal blood pressure (100/60 – 120/80), 20 (28.0%) are pre – hypertensive/at risk (121/81 – 139/89), 24 (33.6) are at stage 1 hypertension (140/90 – 159/99) and 18 (25.2%) are at stage 2 hypertension (160/100) and above.

        Conclusion: Hypertension is a non-communicable disease of public health concern as it is one of the causes of increased mortality across the globe. For these reasons, health education and promotion measures designed to prevent and control all the contributory risk factors of hypertension in the community should be strengthened and be focus of attention.

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

        Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Toward Hypertension among Lebanese Hypertensive Patients

        Abdallah Ali, Hassan Bitar, Oukba Briman, Marc Machaalani, Houssam Seifeddine and Mirna N Chahine*

        Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a major health concern that leads to cardiovascular disease and premature death. Assessing HTN knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) is crucial for controlling HTN. This study aimed to determine HTN KAP among hypertensive patients residing in Lebanon.

        Methods: This observational cross-sectional study targeted 330 participants. A questionnaire form was used to collect data related to patients’ characteristics. SPSS was used to determine KAP scores, descriptive statistics, and correlations.

        Results: Data from 342 eligible participants was analyzed of whom 98.2% were Lebanese and 51.2% were males. The median age was 59.15±13.55 years old. A proportion of 40.4% had HTN for at least 10 years and 67.3% had HTN family history. Patients had fair HTN knowledge and practice, but good attitude toward HTN. Only 45.3% regularly checked their blood pressure. Positive correlations were observed between HTN attitude and each of knowledge and practice. HTN knowledge and attitude were associated with many studies factors, whereas no relationship was found regarding practice.

        Conclusion: Hypertensive patients have an overall moderate level of KAP concerning their disease. We provided a model of predictors of HTN KAP scores that will allow the development of efficient campaigns related to HTN.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Management of Hypertension and Methods

        Thomas Claud*

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        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Role of Hypertension in Aneurysms

        Frederick James*

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