Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis

ISSN: 2329-9517

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 9, Issue 2 (2021)

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Editorial Comments on Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Duraisamy Balaguru

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a disease in which the heart muscle becomes abnormally thick (hypertrophied). The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to pump blood.

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Editorial note on Common Cardiovascular Diseases

    Duraisamy Balaguru

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the name for the group of disorders of heart and blood vessels, and include: hypertension (high blood pressure) coronary heart disease (heart attack) cerebrovascular disease (stroke). Atherosclerosis is a condition that develops when a substance called plaque builds up in the walls of the arteries. This buildup narrows the arteries, making it harder for blood to flow through. If a blood clot forms, it can block the blood flow. This can cause a heart attack or stroke. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common form of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries supplying blood to the heart narrow or harden from the build-up of plaque. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol and other substances found in the blood. This plaque build-up is also known as atherosclerosis.

    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Editorial Note on Myocardial Biology and Heart Failure

    Duraisamy Balaguru

    Heart failure means that that the heart is not pumping as it should. It doesnâ??t mean the heart stops, but rather, that over time it loses pumping function, causing fatigue and shortness of breath. Itâ??s something nearly 5 million Americans face. Understanding the cellular basis of heart failure before and after it happens, along with genetic mutations and differences in men and women, helps researchers target research and create clinical trials. The innovative new methods researched ultimately impact patient care.
    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Editorial Highlights on Regenerative Therapies

    Duraisamy Balaguru

    Many new methods are being researched once a patient has already had heart failure or a heart attack. We are identifying new protein pathways that are abnormally active in the diseased heart and finding new ways to counter them. Stem cell and regenerative therapies for heart failure and heart attack include using cells derived from human blood or skin that are changed to a heart stem cell. Laboratories are developing methods to implant these stem cells into the heart, including implantable bioreactors to keep them active and tissues printed by a biological 3-D printer.
    Editor Note Pages: 1 - 1

    Preventive Cardiology and Modern Approaches

    Duraisamy Balaguru

    Genetics play a big role in your risk of developing heart disease, but so does your lifestyle. Johns Hopkins cardiologists are leaders in preventive cardiology research. With preventive cardiology, the goal is to reduce risk factors and prevent any signs of disease from getting worse.
    Case Report Pages: 1 - 2

    Cardiac Surgery in a Patient with Influenza Pneumonian

    Sowmya Sridharan, Nitin Bansal, P Senthur Nambi, Dhamodharan, and M Yusuf

    Managing a patient with active influenza with surgical emergencies poses a challenge to both treating clinician and infection control preventionist. Active influenza in the perioperative period is known to increase morbidity, but very little literature exists which describes the infection control aspect of the same. Here, we present the infection control aspect of a patient of acute coronary syndrome requiring emergency cardiac bypass surgery who also had influenza A (H3N2).

    Volume 9, Issue 8 (2021)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

      Baseline Aortic Valve Calcium Score and Use of Anticoagulants are associated with Rapid Progression of Aortic Valve Calcification

      Annapoorna Singh*, John T Saxon, Kevin F Kennedy and Randall C Thompson

      DOI: 10.37421/2329-9517.21.9.464

      Background: Factors associated with rapid progression of aortic valve calcification (AVC) remains insufficiently addressed. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors that predict the progression of AVC and whether there is an association with coronary artery calcification (CAC).

      Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with two non-contrast, gated x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans for AVC scoring. Medical records were reviewed, rate of increase in AVC over time was calculated, and a multivariable model was used to determine predictors.

      Results: In 360 patients studied, the mean rate of increase in AVC per year was incrementally higher according to baseline AVC. For patients with baseline AVC score <250 AU, the mean AVC rate per year was 15.8±26.8; and for >1000 AU the mean rate was 280.3±284.2 (p-value <0.001). Use of warfarin anticoagulation was found to be significantly associated with a higher rate of AVC score increase (12.0% in patients with baseline AVC <250 Vs 33.3% patients with baseline AVC >1000) (p <0.05). After adjustment for age, factors noted to have an increased rate of AVC include baseline AVC and oral anticoagulant use (both p <0.05).

      Discussion: The initial CAC score was higher in patients with higher AVC, but the mean rate of increase in CAC score was not found to be statistically significantly related to AVC. There was no statistically significant association between conventional risk factors or CACS. These data may help determine appropriate follow up intervals and risk stratification of patients with AVC.

      Conclusion: The rate of change in AVCS increases according to higher baseline AVC. The rate of calcification is also associated with the use of oral anticoagulants. These data may help determine appropriate follow up intervals and risk stratification of patients with AVCS.

      Volume 9, Issue 3 (2021)

        Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

        Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography added to Standard Care with High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin for Acute Chest Pain

        Jae Gyung Kim, Eun Ho Choo, Dongjae Lee, Chan JK, Hyo SA, Jong Min Lee and Hui-Kyoung J

        European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 0/3-h algorithm using high sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-troponin) is recommended to detect acute myocardial infarction (MI) for patients with acute chest pain. As hs-troponin may be less specific, we assessed the usefulness of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in addition to standard care for patients with acute chest pain. We investigated 695 patients who visited the emergency department for acute chest pain and performed serial hs-troponin T and CCTA. Obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) on CCTA was defined as >=50% stenosis. The primary outcome was the occurrence of MI within 30 days. According to ESC 0/3-h algorithm, patients were categorized into rule-out (425, 61.2%), rule-in (155, 22.3%), and observe group (115, 16.5%). Eighty-one patients (11.7%) were diagnosed with MI. Two hundred ten patients had obstructive CAD on CCTA. The addition of obstructive CAD on CCTA to ESC 0/3-h algorithm improved the diagnostic accuracy for MI (area under the curve: from 0.85 to 0.911, p=0.003). Even for the rule-in and rule-out patients, the specificity (from 78.9% to 94.5%) and positive predictive value (from 32.1% to 62.8%) were significantly improved after the addition of CCTA to ESC 0/3-h algorithm. Half of the patients in the rule-in group did not undergo invasive coronary angiography based on CCTA findings without further MI events. CCTA added to the serial hs-troponin may improve the prediction of MI in patients with acute chest pain.

        Research Pages: 1 - 7

        Assessment of Right Ventricular Function after Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

        Mahmoud Abdelsabour, Khaled Saber, Doaa Ahmed Fouad

        Background: The effect of the different sites of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction on systolic and diastolic right ventricular (RV) function is still unclear. In this study, we aimed to assess the effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) on RV function using echocardiography. Methods: One hundred and seven consecutive patients with first episode of acute STEMI were enrolled in this study with echocardiographic imaging obtained both within 24 hours and 6 months after successful PPCI. Patients were divided into two groups, anterior (45%) and non-anterior STEMI (55%) based on significant ST-segment elevation. Results: At presentation, TAPSE (tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion) and FAC (Fractional area change) were significantly lower in nonanterior vs. anterior group (1.9 ± 0.44 vs. 1.57 ± 0.47cm, p=0.005), (40.4 ± 7.5 vs. 34.6 ± 9%, p=0.001). No significant differences of tricuspid E/A, E/é ratio between both groups were detected while a negative correlation between LV-EF (ejection fraction) and TAPSE was recorded (r=0.24). At follow up, the anterior group showed significant improvement of RV-MPI (myocardial performance index) and LV-EF (p value=< 0.01 and 0.08, consecutively) but not of RV-DF (diastolic function). In non-anterior group, RV recovered significantly regarding FAC, TAPSE, RV-MPI and tricuspid E/é (p value=< 0.01 for all) with no improvement of LV-DF or LV-EF irrelevant of the infarction site. LV-EF showed negative correlation with LV-DF at baseline (r=0.22) and follow up (r=0.4), and with tricuspid E/é at follow up (r=0.4). Additionally, positive correlation between LV-DF and both tricuspid E/é and grades of mitral regurgitation (MR) at baseline and follow up (r=0.37, 0.28 respectively). Conclusion: RV dysfunction can be detected in both anterior and non-anterior STEMI patients at presentation which is more prominent in the nonanterior group. At follow up successful primary PCI patients exhibited recovery of RV systolic function in both groups, while impairment of LV-DF was noted irrelevant of the infarction site. Assessment of RV systolic and diastolic function using echocardiography is useful, rapid and feasible method that can be done initially and at follow up to all STEMI patients.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Walnuts have been Shown to be Effective in the Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in a Study

        Duraisamy Balaguru

        According to research from a randomised controlled study, walnuts have the potential to prevent significant risk factors for heart disease, and that ‘people who eat walnuts on a daily basis can have a lower risk of heart disease.' According to research from a randomised controlled study, walnuts have the potential to prevent significant risk factors for heart disease, with people who eat walnuts on a daily basis having a lower risk of heart disease than those who do not.

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Heart Disease is more likely in Women who have had Complications During Pregnancy

        Duraisamy Balaguru

        Up to 50% of women experience high blood pressure before they reach the age of 60, but the symptoms, such as hot flushes and palpitations, are often due to menopause. A recent research claims that risks during pregnancy and early menopause increase women's potential risk of heart disease. The results were published in the journal 'European Heart Journal.' In the research, cardiologists, gynaecologists, and endocrinologists provided advice on how to help middle-aged women avoid future heart problems. The study concluded that "physicians could increase their detection of hypertension in middle-aged women."

        Editorial Pages: 1 - 1

        Sleeping with Abnormal Blood Pressure Increases the Risk of Heart Failure and Stroke, according to a New Report

        Duraisamy Balaguru

        According to new research, people who have high blood pressure while sleeping are more likely to develop potential cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure, even if their blood pressure during the day is normal. The findings were published today in Circulation, the flagship publication of the American Heart Association. In-office and daytime blood pressure tests are widely used by health care providers to assess a patient's hypertension medication requirements and dosages. Many patients, however, may have nocturnal hypertension, or elevated blood pressure while sleeping, which goes unnoticed. The study participants were told to sleep or rest during the night and continue with their normal activities during the day. In a diary, they documented their everyday tasks, as well as their sleep and wake times. Almost every participant took 20 automatic blood pressure readings during the day and seven at night. Patients self-reported the moment they fell asleep and woke up to assess night-time measurements. All other readings were taken throughout the day.

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