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Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

Current Issue

Volume 7, Issue 3 (2019)

    Research Pages: 1 - 5

    Our Farmsteads, Our Farmlands Conserve and Sustain Biodiversity than Your Mechanized Farming: Accounts of Indigenous Farmers in Ijero, Ekiti State, Nigeria

    Adebiyi Toyosi Oladosu, Bamidele Oluwafoise, Ademola Dada Adegboye, Alaba Rasaki Omonijo and Tolulope Olorunsola Ajayi 

    The study is qualitative research that quantified the accounts of local and mechanized farmers on “biodiversity”, on sampled farmlands in Ijero, Ekiti State, Nigeria. Despite that indigenous people and local communities are recognized as key stakeholders in the implementation of strategic plan by Convention on Biological Diversity; and despite that national biodiversity report in Nigeria recognizes agriculture as one of the key reasons why biodiversity must be sustained and conserved, not many efforts have been geared toward reaching out to this category of stakeholder, hence, this research. This study sets out to ascertain the level of availability, means of conservation and sustainability of the biodiversity in a local community of Ijero Ekiti. A total of 30 farmers were randomly selected from 3 local farmlands (10 per farmland) of “Okoto”, “Salaro” and Oke-asa” with approximately area size of 65, 42 and 61 respectively. These local farmlands have existed for centuries and are communally farmed. Also, 30 farmers were purposively selected from 10 mechanized farms (3 per farmland) of oil palm farm, timber plantation, rice plantation, fish ponds, poultry, piggery etc. A structured questionnaire on Availability, Sustainability, and Conservation of Biodiversity for Farmers (ASCBF) containing list of commonly found plants and animals of vegetation forest where Ijero Ekiti belongs was administered on both local and mechanized farmers in guided interviews. This was considered the best method due to the literacy level of the local farmers. Six research questions were raised for the study and answered descriptively using frequency are percentages. Our main finding from the analyzed results is corroborated by the on-the-spot-assessments that sampled local farmlands retain arrays of species of plants and animals than the mechanized farmlands. Animal pathways, natural habitats of animals and availability of species of plants were all sighted on local farmlands. This is further evident as mechanized farmers practice mono-farming; hence, the needed interdependency in ecosystem is lost. We, therefore, recommend among others that, though the ever-growing human population is the reason for mechanized farming, however, provision of improved seedlings to local farmers and establishment of special agricultural intervention funds could widen their contributions to food supply while still sustaining and conserving biodiversity.

    Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

    Species Diversity and Relative Abundance of Avifauna in Lake Hawassa and its Adjoining Areas, Southern Ethiopia

    Amare Gibru, Girma Meng

    This study was conducted to investigate species diversity and relative abundance of birds in Lake Hawassa and its adjoining areas from August 2017 to February 2018. Systematic random sampling techniques at an interval of 3km were used to select sampling grids. Data were analyzed by using PAST Software version 2.17c in analysing biodiversity indices, Bray-Curtis cluster analysis and Individual Rarefaction analysis. The result showed a total of 103 avian species record belonging to 47 families and 14 orders during both the wet and dry seasons. During the wet season, the riverine habitat had the highest avian species diversity (H’=3.60), followed by Lake Hawassa (H’=3.43), whereas during the dry season, Lake Hawassa had the highest avian species diversity (H’=3.70), followed by the riverine habitat (H’=3.67). Highest species richness was recorded in Lake Hawassa in both seasons. Lake Hawassa and Cheleleka wetland had the strongest bird similarity (39.08%) as shown by the Bray-Curtis cluster analysis. The relative abundance score of species during the wet and dry seasons was variable in all the study sites. The results imply the need to conserve the avifauna of the whole study sites through the conservation of their habitats.

    Volume 8, Issue 1 (2020)

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

      Biology of Elm Leaf Beetles Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Kurdistan Region-Iraq

      Rebwar A. Mustafa

      Recently, Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has been recorded as new species in the Kurdistan region-Iraq, which is one of the most important pests on Elm and feeds on the leaves in either larval or adult stages. The biological study of the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) regarding lifecycle and behavior, was conducted in Halabja city, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola adults were collected from the Elm host trees Ulmus glabra (Ulmaceae) in Halabja city in 2015 and 2016. The life cycle of Elm leaf Beetle was studied under laboratory condition (25℃ and 60 RH), the means of the incubation period, developmental time of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd larval instars were 2.11 ± 0.02, 4.21 ± 0.09, and 6.01 ± 0.0 1 days, respectively. The mean of a pupal period in the soil and under flurried leaves was 11.00 ± 0.03 days. Means of pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods were 10.42 ± 1.2, 7.78 ± 0.4 and 2.4 ± 0.2 days, respectively. The female and male longevity in rearing was 20.6 ± 0.3 and 21.04 ± 1.2 days, respectively. The mean number of eggs per adult was 78.79 ± 5.3. Overall, the total larval stage period was 18-30 days depending on temperature and humidity. Total larval stage period 18-30 days depending on temperature and humidity, the total period life cycle was 35-50 days. In this study, three generations were recorded per year either in the field and laboratory. Moreover, adults of Elm Leaf Beetle hibernate in the under fallen leaves or soil cracks or tree bark, same places where larvae molting.

      Case Report Pages: 1 - 9

      Impact of Darfur’s War on Socioeconomic Activities of the People in Thur, Jabel Marra Darfur; Sudan

      Alaa Yousif

      This study was conducted in Thur village Jabel Marra, Darfur which is one of the richest places in Sudan in terms of biodiversity and vertical land for agriculture since agriculture is constitutes the backbone and principal source of Jabel Marra’s economies. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of war on the socio-economic activities of rural communities in the study area. The study adopted the descriptive analytical approach for the collection and analysis of data, using questionnaires, meetings, and inventory as a basic tool for data collection and analysis by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS).The study concluded that, decreased cultivated lands led to decrease in the production system; which means that, the war affected human activities. Also about   94% of the studied communities are engaged in agricultural activities, where 84% confirm that, the available areas have dramatically decreased due to conflicts causing, further distresses to other agricultural activities. Added to that, about 68% of respondents were depends on the forests products as source of income, while 32% of them mention that they do not depend on the forest. The bulk of respondents mentioned that, the area exploited for agriculture were decreased due to the war period, which led to reductions in individual income as a result of high level of insecurity

      Original Research Article Pages: 1 - 13

      Human pressure threaten Swayne's Hartebeest to point of local extinction from the Savannah Plains of Nech Sar National Park, South Rift Valley, Ethiopia

      Simon Shibru

      We investigated the population size of the endemic and endangered Swayne’s Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Nech Sar National Park from 2012 to 2014 and document the major threats why the species is on the verge of local extinction. The park was once known for its abundant density of Swayne’s Hartebeest. We used direct total count methods for census. We administered semi structured interviews and open ended questionnaires with senior scouts who are member of the local communities. Historical records were obtained to evaluate the population trends of the animals since 1974. The density of the animal decreased from 65 in 1974 to 1 individual per 100 km2 in 2014 with a decline of 98.5% in the past 40 years. The respondents agreed that the conservation status of the park was in its worst condition ever now with only 2 Swayne’s Hartebeest left, with a rapid decline from 4 individuals in 2012 and 12 individuals in 2009. Mainly hunting and habitat loss, but also unsuitable season of reproduction and shortage of forage as minor factors were identified as threats for local extinction of the Swayne’s Hartebeests. On the other hand, predation, fire, disease and ticks were not considered a cause for the declining trend. Hunting happens mostly out of some kind of revenge since the local community thought that they were pushed out from the land because of the presence of Swayne's Hartebeest in the area. Respondents agreed that the revenge action of the local communities was in response to their unwillingness to be displaced from the park in 1982/3. This conflict situation is resulting from the exclusionary wildlife management policy of the country. We conclude that the human interventions in general and illegal hunting in particular pushed the Swayne’s Hartebeest to a point of local extinction. Therefore, we recommend inclusive wildlife management approach for continuing existence of the park together with its natural resources so that sustainable use of the resources is in place.  

      Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

      Assessment of Socio-Economic Role of Yushania alpina in Dawuro Zone, Essera District, SNNPR, Ethiopia

      Bekele Tona Amenu

      Bamboo (Yushania alpine) known as highland bamboo is a perennial, multipurpose and fast-growing plant that supports local livelihoods in many ways. However, for long its uses have been limited to traditional applications. Although bamboo has quit high distribution and widely utilized by a large number of local communities in Ethiopia, little baseline information on its livelihood support and domestication status exist for several areas. The objectives of this study were to assess the socio-economic roles of Yushania alpine in the Essera district, Zadi Shamity kebele of Dawuro Zone, SNNP Region. The study used a combination of methods to achieve the set objectives. The socio-economic survey involved formal and informal interviews and observations. On the farm, the bamboo stock was assessed using farm-level inventory. For socio-economic data collection, a formal (questionnaire) survey was administered on 60 respondents. The respondents were selected from one peasant kebele; this kebele was purposefully selected among the 29 kebeles within the district. This selection was based principally on accessibility and abundance of bamboo resources, use and marketing history. The results showed that the aggregated contribution of bamboo to the gross household income is found to be only 11% of the total, which is very less than the income from agriculture (30%). The income generated from bamboo ranks second in importance as sources of household income. Bamboo is used for a variety of traditional applications include construction, fencing, fodder, household furniture, fuel-wood and as a cash source. Almost 96% of households have been started bamboo cultivation on their land and wasteland. Among these, almost above the average respondents (71%) of the respondents) had inherited their bamboo stands from parents. The major push factors for cultivation/domestication in their order of importance are increasing bamboo use for different household purposes, income generation and depletion of bamboo in the natural stand. In conclusion, promotion, training and market facilitation for better economic incentives from bamboo may win increased local people participation bamboo cultivation, which may ultimately lead to better conservation and utilization of bamboo.

      Review Article Pages: 1 - 15

      Behavioral Ecology of Forest Birds

      Endihnew Tessfa Gedam

      Birds are among the most extensively studied organisms; their aspects of behavior as migration, feeding, sexual and social display, and nesting are well documented Naish. Birds are relatively easy to identify compared to other taxa because of their conspicuous nature and therefore particularly interesting to study in community ecology Bird behavior refers to the action of a bird in response to environmental situations. Testosterone (T) regulates avian behaviors such as songs and aggression during the breeding season. However, the role of T in year-round territorial birds is still unknowable, especially in tropical birds

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