Malaria Control & Elimination

ISSN: 2470-6965

Open Access

Volume 10, Issue 2 (2021)

Research Pages: 1 - 5

Natural Basis for the Proliferation of Malaria Vectors in Northern Benin (West Africa)

Andre Sominahouin, Roseric Azondekon, Sahabi Bio Bangana, Casimir Kpanou, Germain Gil Padonou, Razaki Osse, Benoît Assogba, Fiacre Agossa, Filemon Tokponon, Martin C. Akogbeto.

Background: Malaria transmission is based on four essential elements: the vector, the parasite, humans and the environment. However, of the four elements, the
environment is not sufficiently exploited.
Methods: In the research presence carried out in 6 localities in North Benin, we used a microscopic vision of the health geographer, focusing on certain components
of geography, entomology and meteorology to show what to show spatial disparities in malaria transmission using Arcgis 10.4, Global Mapper and SPSS 21.0 for
regression and correlation analysis.
Results: The results of our research show that the slopes are unstable. Also, the lower the altitude the lower the water kinetics and consequently a lot of water
stagnation favourable for the development of mosquito breeding sites. The explanatory power of the regression model means that 54.3% of the variation in positive
mosquito breeding is explained by human population density.
Conclusions: Benin must make significant progress in the elimination of malaria using a new effort to understand the ecology of vector mosquitoes based on spatial
disparities in the fight against malaria.

Research Pages: 1 - 8

Occurrence of Knockdown Resistance (kdr) Gene Mutation in Anopheles gambiae s.l. and Comparative Phenotypic Susceptibility to Synergized Natural Pyrethrum Formulation

Kefa S Sum

Knockdown resistance (kdr) associated with single point mutation at the residue L1014 in the IIS6 transmembrane segment of the voltage gated sodium channel (vgsc)
gene in Anopheles gambiae s.l. is one of the known mechanisms of resistance against pyrethroid insecticides. This has emerged as a real threat to the continued effective use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) that rely mostly on pyrethroids as the active ingredient to control malaria vectors. There is, therefore, need for continuous monitoring the occurrence of vectors and development of alternative insecticide formulations as a strategy to manage kdr resistance and to sustain the use of this important technologies in malaria vector control. Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes were collected from Kisian, Ahero and Kipsitet, which are malaria endemic sites in western area of Kenya. The sibling species were identified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) while genotyping for kdr mutation in the IIS4-IIS6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc was done using real time
PCR (RT-PCR). Susceptibility of the wild An. gambiae s.l and pink eyed An. gambiae s.s with fixed kdr resistance genes to synergized natural pyrethrum formulation
was assessed using WHO impregnated papers. Bioassay data data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) while those with coefficient of variation (CV) of >15% were transformation into logarithms before analysis. Treatment means were compared using least significant difference (LSD, P=0.05).
All the mosquitoes obtained from Kipsitet and Ahero areas were An. Arabiensis while in Kisian, 73% were An. arabiensis and 27% were An. gambiae s.s. No kdr genes
were detected in the An. arabiensis while there was 100% frequency of the L1014S kdr mutation in the An. gambiae s.s. Natural pyrethrum formulation achieved
significantly (P=0.0001) higher kill than pyrethroids against An. gambiae s.s. with kdr genes. High susceptibility of the An. gambiae s.s. with kdr mutation and wild
phenotypes to the synergized pyrethrum formulation provides crucial evidence for practical management of the spreading kdr and other resistance mechanisms to
pyrethroids in malaria vectors. The apparent lack of kdr resistance genes detected in An. arabiensis is proposed as a subject for further research.

Research Article Pages: 1 - 7

Vulnerability Associated with Transmission of Malaria among Migrants in Nepal

Ram Chandra Poudel*

Transmission of malaria determines receptivity and vulnerability characteristics of an area. As indigenous malaria cases in Nepal have declined in recent years, the number of imported cases, largely from India, has increased. In the context of increasing, trend of imported cases of malaria transmission in Nepal, it is important to understand the nature of imported cases of malaria and its vulnerability. The overall objective of this study was to examine the vulnerability associating transmission of malaria among migrants in province 5. Methods and Martials: Study designs have been descriptive and analytical, study populations have been all investigated imported cases, 159 sample sizes have been taken and secondary sources have been used for data collection. Department of health services, Epidemiology and diseases control Division has been providing data. Results: Must vulnerable age founded age group 15-59 years and mean age was found 28 ±11. Occupation was found to be statistically significantly associated with malaria species (p<0.01). Similarly, previous infection was also found to be associated with malaria species, which was statistical significant at p<0.01. Occupation was also found statistically significantly associated with use of preventive measures at p<0.01 level. Similarly duration of stay was found to be statistically significantly associates with use of preventive measures at p<0.05 level. Occupation was found statistical significantly associated with a previous history of malaria at p<0.05 level. Ethnicity was found statistical associated with treatment with national malaria treatment protocol, which was significant at p<0.05 level. Duration of stay was found statistically associates with treated with national malaria treatment protocol, which was significant at P<0.05 level. Conclusion: Must vulnerable age group was found 15-59 years group. With gender, males use less preventive measures as compared to female. Majority of Janjatis have not treated of their previous infection with national malaria treatment protocol. With occupation, labor was found must vulnerable for transmission of malaria than other occupational group. Those who stay less than 6 months or frequently visited different places were must vulnerable transmission of malaria infection.

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