Air pollution is a pressing global issue that significantly affects public health, especially in urban areas. With the rapid industrialization and urbanization of cities, the levels of air pollutants have risen dramatically, posing severe risks to respiratory health. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of air pollution on lung health in urban environments, exploring the major pollutants, mechanisms of action, and the epidemiological evidence linking air pollution to respiratory diseases. Additionally, it will discuss the current regulatory measures and potential solutions to mitigate the detrimental effects of air pollution on lung health in urban settings. Air pollution is a complex mixture of various particulate matter (PM) and gaseous substances released from natural sources, industrial activities, and transportation systems. The primary pollutants include nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).