Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

Volume 9, Issue 9 (2021)

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

A Phenomenon Discovered While Imaging Dolphin Echolocation Sounds

Jack Kassewitz

Our ultimate goal is to investigate if dolphins use language or possibly graphic information in their intricate whistles and clicks. In images obtained from digital recordings of dolphins echolocating on submerged objects, we have uncovered a surprising occurrence. Hydrophone recordings of dolphin echolocation noises were fed into a CymaScope, an analogue device in which a voice coil motor directly linked to a waterfilled fusedquartz cell is acoustically activated in the vertical axis. The resulting wave patterns were recorded with a digital video camera. We observed the formation of transient wave patterns in some of the digital video frames that clearly matched the shapes of the objects on which the dolphin echolocated, including a closed cell foam cube, a PVC cross, a plastic flowerpot, and a human subject. As further confirmation of this phenomenon the images were then converted into 3-dimensional computer models. The thickness of the computer models was related to the brightness of a contrast-enhanced image at any given position, with brighter portions thicker and darker ones thinner. A high-definition 3D printer was used to manufacture these 3-dimensional virtual models in photopolymers.

Keywords: Dolphin echolocation; Hydrophone recordings; Cyma Scope; Faraday waves; standing waves; 3D printing


We show that dolphin echolocation sound fields contain embedded shape information that can be retrieved and imaged by a CymaScope sensor when reflected off objects. Object pictures can be exhibited in two ways: as 2-D images or as 3-D printed objects. To echolocate, bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) employ directional, high-frequency broadband clicks, either individually or in bursts known as "click trains." Each click lasts anywhere from 50 to 128 microseconds. Our team detected the highest frequencies at around 300 kHz, although other studies have recorded frequencies as high as 500 kHz generated by Amazon river dolphins . By processing the returning echoes, dolphins may navigate, locate, and classify things using clicks. Other Cetacea, most bats, and some humans use echolocation, also known as bio-sonar (Sound Navigation and Ranging). Dolphins echolocate on objects, humans, and other life forms both above and below water. Although the specific biological mechanisms by which dolphins "see" with sound are still unknown, the fact that they do so is well documented. Pack and Herman discovered, for example, that "a bottlenosed dolphin... was capable of rapidly detecting a range of complexly structured objects both inside the senses of vision and echolocation, as well as across these two senses." Shape information registers directly in the dolphin's perception of objects, whether by vision or echolocation, and these precepts are easily shared or integrated across the senses, as seen by the immediacy of accuracy of intercessory recognition was nearly errorless regardless of whether the sample objects were presented to the echolocation sense … the visual sense (E-V matching) or the reverse… Overall, the results suggested that what a dolphin “sees” through echolocation is functionally similar to what it sees through vision “cognition. Herman and Pack also demonstrated that “...cross-modal recognition of... complexly formed objects utilising the senses of echolocation and vision... Under both visual to echoic (V-E) and echoic to visual (E-V) matching, 24 of the 25 pairs were errorless or nearly so (E-V). For 20 V-E pairings and 24 E=V pairings, the first trial recognition happened... The findings point to the possibility of direct echoic awareness of object shape... and show that prior object exposure isn't necessary for spontaneous cross-modal recognition’s. Winthrop Kellog was the first to study dolphin echolocation in depth and found their sonic abilities remarkable. He discovered that dolphins are able to track objects as small as a single “BB” pellet (approximately 0.177 inch) at a range of 80 feet and negotiate a maze of vertical metal rods in total darkness. A recent study showed that a bottlenose dolphin can echolocate a 3-inch water -filled ball at a range of 584 feet, analogous to detecting a tennis ball almost two football fields away. Click trains and whistles have a frequency range of 0.2 to 300 kHz, and they appear to come from at least two pairs of phonators or phonic lips near the blowhole. Pumping air between air sacs above and below the phonators excites the phonic lips. Attached muscles can quickly change the posture of the phonators

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Aquatic Insects Fauna of Meshkin Shahr, Ardabil Province, Northwestern Iran, 2014

Vatandoost Hassan

Wolaita, Hadya, Dawuro zone, and Konta Special Woreda were investigated. Household and key informant interviews were used in the study. The study's goal was to determine the primary potential and limits for honey production in the SNNPR's central zones. Availability of ready and eager beekeepers to follow modern technology path, availability of natural forest with adequate apiculture flora and water resource, existence of strong bee colony and a number of colonies, diversity and seasonal availability of bee forages, and market access are some of the opportunities of a strong bee colony and a number of colonies. Lack of technical knowhow of small scale farmers, prevalence of honey bee enemies, lack of improved apiculture equipments, lack of improved honeybee flora, little attention given to apiculture development and technology introduction in the sector, lack of market oriented apiculture farming system and market irrationality were among the major constraints of apiculture farming identified in the study districts. The remedial measures for listed constraints of apiculture farming in the region recommended includes capacity building of small scale farmers, value chain analysis and value chain development adoption, pre-scaling up of proven apiary technologies and establishment of market oriented farmers apiary cooperatives.

Keywords: Aquatic, Insects, Faunistic, Meshkin


Aquatic insects are a group of arthropods that can live in freshwater and brackish water successfully with spending at least one stage of their life cycle in water. Actually more than 30,000 species of aquatic insect have been identified which live in freshwater and only several hundred are living in marine environments. Vast majority of insect spend their primary stage in water while adults are terrestrial, for instance orders of Ephemeroptera (0D\fl\) Odonata (DrDgonfl\ and DDmselfl\) Plecoptera (Stonefl\) Trichoptera (CDddiesfl\) Megaloptera ($lderfl\) Neuroptera (Lacewings), Diptera (Flies), Lepidoptera (Moths) and Hymenoptera (Wasps). Some Coleoptera (Beetle) and Hemiptera (Bug) species are entirely aquatic, with larval, nymphal, and adult stages all existing in water. Semi-aquatic insects are associated with semi-aquatic and aquatic plants, as well as water margin and water surface habitats. Some aquatic insects are crucial in the transmission of diseases like Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever, Filariasis, and other Arboviral infections. Some of them, such as drDgonfl and dDmselfl, can be termatode hosts. By painful biting, a few of them cause physical and mental irritation as well as cutaneous harm to human and animal hosts. Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) are examples of aquatic insects that play an important role as water resource contamination indicators. The number of EPT species is referred to as a "biological indicator" of water quality. The comparison of intolerant and tolerant species is used to assess water quality.

Some of the themes from the early phases are employed in toxicological research. Aquatic insects play an important role in nutrient recycling and decomposition in freshwater. He acts as shredders, scrapers, filter feeders, and predators, among other things. Trichopterans, for example, are crucial in trophic dynamics, energy flow, and the food chain, and are one of the main food sources for amphibians and fishes, hence they play a vital role in ecosystems. We decided to perform a survey in Ardabil province, Meshkin shahr, northwestern Iran, in order to open a fresh window into the enormous world of aquatic insects due to the scarcity of fauna and biodiversity studies of aquatic insects in Iran

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Goby (Gobius spp.) and Sole (Solea solea) fromThermaikos Gulf, Greece

Ioannis Dosis

The mass fractions of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) were calculated in samples from two benthic fish species, goby and sole, from the Thermaikos Gulf in north Greece. A well-known cold extraction procedure was used to evaluate the samples. For goby and sole, the average total (PBDE) was 8.98 to 35.00 ng g-1 lipid weight (lw) and 12.36 to 163.26 ng g-1 lw, respectively. Significant differences were observed between samplings but not between the two species. Thermaikos Gulf was classified as low polluted or comparable with regard to similar areas worldwide; however, the notable mass fraction increase in some cases as well as the increasing temporal trend of PBDE levels established for both species signify the need for further monitoring. Congener profiles showed dominance of penta-/octa-BDEs (50-70% from Σ PBDEs) and the presence of deca-BDE as well (18- 19%). Congener correlation analysis suggested different pollution sources between higher and lower brominated congeners, as well as different metabolic/degradation processes. Calculations of bioaccumulation factors (BSAF) highlighted the influence of congener bromination degree on the bioaccumulation potential

Keywords: Brominated flame retardants (BFRs); Aquatic ecosystem; Bioaccumulation; Benthic species; Environmental pollution monitoring; Congener profile


Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants (BFRs) that are widely used in a variety of commercial and household products, such as plastics, construction materials, foams, electronic equipment, and so on, to reduce the risk of these products igniting or to slow down the burning process. PBDEs form a group that consists of 209 congeners and have similar molecular structure to persistent organic pollutants [Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs, etc.)] Which also suggests an ubiquitous environmental presence in every level of the trophic chain due to their properties such as environmental persistence, lipophilicity , bioaccumulation and resistance to degradation. Recent investigations in the marine food chain have revealed that PBDEs can be transferred via the trophic levels. PBDE contamination can occur directly through the use and disposal of PBDE commercial items, as well as through leaching/volatilization, or indirectly through other pathways (such as air, soil, or water transport). PBDEs were found in a variety of aquatic creatures, as well as other environmental markers and human bodies. Adverse toxicological effects through bioaccumulation/ bio magnification, linked to the immune and reproductive systems have been reported both for humans and wildlife. Fish and shellfish consumption constitute one of human’s major exposure route.

The presence of large quantities of PBDEs in the marine environment in benthic fish shows that the abiotic environment has a substantial impact on their bioaccumulation mechanisms. Pollution levels in fish are typically high among aquatic animals, however European levels were found to be significantly lower than those in North America. For two benthic fish species (Gobius spp. & Solea solea) from Thermaikos gulf, PBDE mass fraction levels, congener profiles, and temporal trends were estimated in this study. Pollution levels were compared to worldwide reported statistics and possible discrepancies in mass fractions between the two species were studied. According to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) developed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for PBDEs, bioaccumulation factors were estimated to assess the potential harm to public health from intake of these two edible species of fish. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first set of data on PBDEs in fish from the Thermaikos Gulf region

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Tree Species Diversity in Miombo Woodlands in Malawi

Roger M. Wang

Animal variety richness (the number of species present) and species homogeneity are used to calculate species variety. The technologist Index is commonly used in biology to combine species wealth and uniformity into an one marker. To figure out species diversity, we'd rather acquire a hold on space, the world, the backwoods, and so the zone in which each species is involved. This data will be obtained via a timberland study or stock data. Species diversity can be determined at a number of sizes, including the executive unit of a timberland, the entire woodland space, provincially, or even nationally. We'd prefer to contemplate this when investigating the backwoods because the larger the timberland space, the more animal categories are likely to be there. Expanding the range of timberland tree species is vital to increasing our resilience to global environmental change and reducing the risk of vermin or microbe injury. Dry seasons are a growing concern for earthly biological systems, particularly in the backwoods, where declines in tree development and durability are noticeable. Assortment has for sometime been recognized as a vital component tweaking framework capacities, just as alleviating their weakness to climate�related stresses. During this audit, predictable instruments region unit known by that tree variety may scale back weakness to dry season and rising proof is found that tree variety isn't reliably totally connected with dry spell obstruction in woods.

A method is frequently prescribed to any expansion of our data on this subject within the context of global environmental alterations, offering standardisation of procedures to quantitatively establish various effects on the dry spell obstruction of woodlands. Trees are important drivers of a forest ecosystem because they influence backwoods microclimate (available light, moisture, and temperatures), produce litter, humus, and deadwood, and provide a diverse range of microhabitats. As a result, a diverse range of woodland organisms (such as spices, creepy crawlies, and parasites) might rely on the abundance of tree species. s. When all is said in done, multi-tree-species woodlands territory unit a ton of various than one-tree-animal types backwoods. Woods primary and integrative inconstancy is of fundamental significance for backwoods framework working and species variety. The point of this investigation was to take a gander at anyway human effect has influenced the Compositional-underlying variety of develop pine-ruled boreal Backwoods in boreal Fennoscandia.statistics and possible discrepancies in mass fractions between the two species were studied. According to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) developed by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for PBDEs, bioaccumulation factors were estimated to assess the potential harm to public health from intake of these two edible species of fish. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first set of data on PBDEs in fish from the Thermaikos Gulf region.

However, the basic instruments territory unit has almost no saw, perhaps because to the primary focus on a superficial level framework and overlooking species-specific features. We investigated how tree species diversity and tree species characteristics affect underground nematode worm networks using a variety of tree species structures. Because soil nematodes belong to a variety of natural cycle groups and their domain is closely linked to the microorganism local area, the findings will provide insight into how soil food networks are organised. By and large, beech and debris intensely anyway opposing impacted the natural interaction construction of nematode worm networks proposing that adjustments in tree species personality lead to significant movements inside the directing of energy through decomposer food networks. The findings show that the design of soil food networks changes with tree species and that basal assets, such as leaf litter and rhizodeposits, are important. This implies that single tree species, rather than tree diversity, intercede on behalf of base up authorities to drive significant disintegration pathways.

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Research on medicinal plants uses and benefits

Roger M. Wang

Medicinal herbs have been used for healing since the dawn of time. The link between man and his hunt for pharmaceuticals in nature extends back thousands of years, as evidenced by a variety of sources including written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plant remedies. Attention to medicinal plant use is a result of man's long-term battles against diseases, which taught him how to look for drugs in barks, seeds, natural product bodies, and other plant parts. Modern science has identified their dynamic activity, and it has remembered for modern pharmacotherapy a variety of plant-based drugs that have been known and used for centuries. The improvement of knowledge related to the use of medicinal plants, as well as the development of mindfulness, has increased the capacity of drug specialists and doctors to respond to the issues that have developed as a result of the extension of expert administrations in support of man's life.

Individuals have been searching for drugs in nature since ancient times in pursuit of a cure for their ailments. The use of therapeutic plants began in a natural way, just as it does with other organisms. Because there was no enough data at the time, either concerning the causes of the ailments or which plant and how it may be utilised as a remedy, everything was based on personal experience. As expected, the explanations behind the utilization of explicit therapeutic plants for treatment of specific illnesses were being found; in this way, the restorative plants' use steadily deserted the empiric structure and got established on explicatory realities. The most established composed proof of therapeutic plants' utilization for arrangement of medications has been found on a Sumerian mud chunk from Nagpur, roughly 5000 years of age. It involved 12 plans for drug readiness alluding to more than 250 different plants, some of them alkaloid, for example, poppy, henbane, and mandrake. In Homer's legends The Iliad and The Odysseys, made around 800 BC, 63 plant species from the Minoan, Mycenaean, and Egyptian Assyrian pharmacotherapy were alluded to.

Cinnamon, iris rhizome, bogus hellebore, mint, pomegranate, cardamom, fragrant hellebore, monkshood, and other plants were given names based on imaginative characters from these legends. This generally deciphered archaic work of history provides a wealth of knowledge on the restorative herbs that established the essential material medical till the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Of the absolute of 944 medications portrayed, 657 are of plant cause, with portrayals of the outward appearance, region, method of assortment, making of the restorative arrangements, and their helpful impact. In the medieval times, the abilities of mending, development of restorative plants, and readiness of medications moved to cloisters. Treatment was based on 16 medicinal plants that the doctors priests grew in the cloisters, including sage, anise, mint, Greek seed, savoury, tansy, and others. The Arabs introduced a variety of new plants in pharmacotherapy, mostly from India, a country with whom they had trade contacts, albeit most of the plants were of genuine medicinal use, and they have since been included in all pharmacopoeias around the world.

Therapeutic plants were included in the compound pharmaceuticals, as well as remedies from the creature's and plant's birthplace. If the panacea was made from a variety of medicinal plants, rare creatures, and minerals, it was highly valued and sold lavishly. People have been trying to find remedies to relieve pain and cure diseases since the dawn of time. The mending properties of specific restorative plants were noticed, chronicled, and passed down through the years in each period, each progressive century from the advancement of mankind and progressed human advancements. The benefits of one society were transferred to another, which rebuilt old properties and discovered new ones till the present day. The endless and everlasting advantages of restorative herbs have resulted in the current and perfected design of their preparation and use

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