Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

Volume 9, Issue 6 (2021)

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Identifying, developing and moving sustainable communities through application of bioenergy for energy or materials: Future perspective through energy efficiency

Abdeen Mustafa Omer

Energy demand continued to surpass supply, necessitating the development of biomass alternatives. The most popular kinds of renewable energy were residues, and biofuel production has recently become considerably more promising. Agricultural wastes have a high moisture content and were easy for bacteria to breakdown. Agricultural wastes were plentiful over the world, and a variety of microbes could convert them to energy and useful compounds. The injection of suitable thermophiles bacteria into compost or bio fertilizer boosted the decomposition rate, decreased the maturity period, and improved the compost (or bio-fertilizer) quality. The goal of this study was to promote biomass technology through adaptive research, demonstration, and distribution of findings. A vast field study was done to examine the availability of raw materials as well as the current state of biomass technology in order to achieve the goal. An attempt was also made in this message to provide an overview of the current and future usage of biomass as an industrial feedstock for the manufacture of fuels, chemicals, and other materials. The review article concludes that biomass technology should be supported, promoted, invested in, implemented, and proven not only in cities but also in rural areas.

It accounted for over 20% of world primary energy consumption in 2006, while its closest competitor, China, accounted for 15%. (IEA, 2009). However, given concerns about oil import security, recent price volatility, and the greenhouse gas emissions linked with energy consumption, using energy more effectively has become a top issue. It outlines their current status of development, their potential for application, as well as the performance, prices, and environmental implications that come with them. However, in order for these technologies to make an impact, they must be widely accepted. As a result, the chapter also discusses the often difficult barriers to market penetration as well as the lessons learned from policies and initiatives. Although the terms "energy efficiency" and "energy conservation" are frequently used interchangeably, they refer to two distinct concepts. Increasing energy efficiency is achieving a goal, such as heating a room to a specific temperature, while using less energy. Energy conservation entails doing things differently, which may include lifestyle modifications such as lowering the temperature. The focus of this chapter is on energy efficiency.

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Utilizing ecological fire management to enhance purple copper butterfly habitat

Colleen Farrow

The purple copper butterfly (Paralucia spinifera) is a vulnerable species found exclusively in New South Wales' Central Tablelands. All known populations are situated above 900 metres, primarily on north-facing hills with periodic snowfall. The butterfly is supposed to rely on a mutualistic relationship with a native ant, and it only feeds on one type of native shrub: the native blackthorn (Bursaria spinosa ssp. lasiophylla) (Anonychomyrma itinerans). Despite this, habitat loss, plant competition, and a lack of natural blackthorn regrowth pose a threat to purple copper butterfly populations. Ecological fire trials have been used to rejuvenate native blackthorn plants over the last three years. Implementing carefully managed trials on purple copper butterfly habitat is providing a new approach to managing the complex issues surrounding this species. Fire is emerging as an important tool for threatened species across Australia, and implementing carefully managed trials on purple copper butterfly habitat is providing a new approach to managing the complex issues surrounding this species. This study has shown promise, with considerable basal shoot growth and lichen reduction observed across experimental sites. As a result of these outcomes, more food sources for larvae are available, and habitat regions may be improved. While this is a favourable conclusion that gives management alternatives, more research is required. Studies on the link between the butterfly and the native ant, as well as more ecological fire trials and continuing larvae monitoring counts, will add to our understanding of the relationship and its function in population dynamics.

The Bathurst Copper Butterfly, Paralucia spinifera, can only be found on the Central Tablelands of New South Wales, between Bathurst and Hartley. The Bathurst Copper Butterfly is only found at heights over 900 metres, where it feeds on Bursaria spinosa subsp. lasiophylla, a kind of Blackthorn. The Bathurst Copper Butterfly has a mutualistic relationship with Anonychomyrma itinerans, a little black ant that guards the caterpillar and hosts the pupae within its nest. The Bathurst Copper Butterfly has been found in twenty-nine different locations across fewer than thirty hectares of habitat. Native vegetation removal is estimated to have decreased the area of viable habitat to small isolated remnants. The effect that numerous threats to the species may have on the remaining sites is compounded by the limited size of these remnants. Habitat loss or change due to clearing, spraying, grazing, fire, weed invasion, and illicit collection are all current threats to the Bathurst Copper Butterfly. Six of the twenty-nine sites have not seen the butterfly in recent years, while others may be declining.

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Breeding biology of red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) in district Okara, Pakistan

Bushra Allah Rakha

The breeding biology of the red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) was investigated in the Pakistani region of Okara. A total of 69 nests were found in the study region, with 51 active nests recording breeding activity. Parks were the most popular location for successful nest construction (46%) followed by orchids (28%), and agricultural fields (28%). (27 percent ). The data on the location of successful nests on the plant revealed that the forks had the highest number of successful nests (48%) while the middle, terminal, and other positions had 17 percent, 10%, and 25%, respectively. The preferred height for nest construction on plant was recorded 1-2m (58%) followed by 2-3 m (17%), 0-1 m (16%), 3-4 m (7%) and 4-5 m (1%). Red vented bulbul prefer to make nests on Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis; 32%) followed by Guava (Psidium guajava; 19%), Mango (Mangifera indica; 9%), White mulberry (Morus alba; 9%), Sweat orange (Citrus x sinensis; 9%), Bubul (Vachellia nilotica; 7%), Banyan (Ficus benghalensis; 4%), Weeping fig (Ficus benjamina; 3%) and Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera; 3%) in the study area. The clutch size 3 (87 percent) produced the most nests, followed by 2 (11 percent) and 4 (4%). (2 percent ). Bulbuls are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and animals. Fruits and berries, insects and other arthropods (invertebrates, animals without backbones, with jointed bodies), as well as small vertebrates, animals with a backbone, such as frogs, snakes, and lizards, are all part of the diet. The green-tailed bristle-bill, for example, only feeds insects in a very restricted area, which is made up of a narrow horizontal layer of forest flora.

Bulbuls are arboreal creatures that live in trees. They can be found in a range of habitats, including woods, open woodlands, and even human-made gardens. The interior of the forest is home to certain African and Indonesian species. Some people prefer forest clearings or open regions just outside the forest. Species that have evolved to live in dry environments can thrive in farmed areas. Other bulbuls prefer to dwell near water, such as rivers or forest streams. The African red-eyed bulbul has evolved to a drier climate and can be found in savanna (grassland with few trees), semiarid scrub, and bushy hillsides, among other places. The common bulbul, also known as the African bulbul, may be found all over Africa, making it the most common of the bulbuls there. A total of 154 eggs were counted from 51 nests, with 10% of the eggs being infertile, 19% being predated, and 4% being lost to other causes. A total of 104 eggs were observed and hatched, with 28 percent of them being predated and 6 percent falling out of the nest. When compared to agricultural fields, the success rate of fledglings was highest in parks and orchids (39 percent) (22 percent ). The breeding biology of the red vented bulbul in Okara is distinctive, with northern white cedar as the favoured plant for nest construction and the highest breeding success in parks and orchids.

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Environmental services generated by the Brazilian Army tutored areas located in Atlantic forest

Helder de Barros Guimaraes

We are examining the environmental services generated by the Brazilian Army tutored areas in Brazil in this project. The field instruction and others 4 Battalion were the five study areas. These territories were previously used for the production of sugar cane and the grazing of cattle before coming under the Army's control. Today, it encompasses the majority of the Atlantic woodland biome's remnants north of the Rio San Francisco. These findings lead to the following hypotheses: the Brazilian Army develops various activities of instruction and training in areas with forest cover which, combined with restrictions imposed by the military administration, contributed to the regeneration of local ecosystems, forest areas under the tutelage of the Army Brazilian generate various environmental services of interest of the state and metropolitan society and broader ecological importance and the lack of environmental regulations that categorize the specific areas of the military can induce directions of uses incompatible with military activities. Climate environmental services, inventory maintenance and carbon absorption, biodiversity maintenance and regeneration, and watershed recharge were identified and addressed as ways to put them to the test. Based on a comparison of images and the leaf area index, we were able to determine the evolution of the environmental condition of woods under the Army's control. Environmental legal factors that control these places were recognised in the effort to observe the existence of conflict of specific legislative rules with military training activities. Finally, we identified present and intended uses, as well as scenarios for induced inertial and study items.

Forests provide important environmental services that are critical to the social reproduction of rural populations. Landscape planning is heavily influenced by people's perceptions of the services supplied by forests; nevertheless, few research have looked at this topic. The goal of this study was to learn how farmers think about the function of trees in providing environmental services. A total of 100 farmers from the Chapecó Ecological Corridor in South Carolina were interviewed. The most frequently mentioned services were provisioning and regulating. Water availability came in first (65%), followed by the preservation of biodiversity habitat (34%), and firewood (34%). (23 percent ). The variables that best explained farmers' perceptions of forest benefits were income and local usage of forest resources. Nonetheless, environmental regulation has imposed constraints on the use of forest resources, which is altering farmers' perceptions of the wide range of environmental services supplied by forests. Forests are extremely important in terms of meeting human requirements. Forests are rich in biodiversity and are important for a variety of reasons. Recreation, water regulation, and soil preservation are all important factors to consider. The findings demonstrate the important environmental role played by the forests studied, as well as the significant contribution made in terms of environmental services for military areas in RMR, such as softening the local climate by smoothing the flow of some springs and providing conditions for fauna and flora conservation in the Atlantic forest biome.

Value Added Abstracts Pages: 1 - 1

Alternatives to the cross-river superhighway balances sustainable infrastructure development with biodiversity conservation

Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud

The problem statement is that road infrastructure development is vital, but it can be problematic if it is not well planned. Spatial scientists can give evidence-based reasoning for implementing sustainable and effective road infrastructure provisioning that maximises socioeconomic advantages while maximising nature conservation. The African case study presented in this study shows how rerouting poorly planned highways can reduce negative environmental impacts, conserve biodiversity, and provide innovative and flexible ecosystem management solutions, all based on integrated spatially explicit impacts assessment and cost-benefit analysis. Examining the proposed 260-kilometer motorway in Cross River State, Nigeria's south-east, demonstrates how human actions in equatorial Africa affect biodiversity and wildlife conservation. Findings: The Cross River State Government in Nigeria's proposed roadway would have cut through 115 kilometres of intact tropical rainforest or protected areas and cost US$2.5 billion to build. We proposed and analysed two alternative routes 1 and 2 that would be less harmful to the Cross River National Park, unprotected forests, and biodiversity areas.Although the alternative routes are slightly longer (290 and 353 km), they are less expensive to build (US$0.9 billion) than the state government's proposed superhighway. The first option proposed completely avoids intact forest while attempting to maximise benefits to farmers and settlers.

Environmental ethics predates the concept of sustainability and has a lot to contribute to a sustainability ethics. This chapter presents an overview of environmental ethics' primary topics, thinkers, and theoretical methods. It also addresses hot topics like the relevance of scientific and ecological concepts and ideas in environmental ethics. It also looks at the connections between social and ecological communities in terms of environmental justice. Sustainability is an important subject that has a lot of people talking about it and a lot of people supporting it. However, because of its complexity and the massive paradigm shifts it advocates, it is intrinsically difficult to implement. Conclusion and Importance: In order to meet Goal #9 of the global Sustainable Development Goals, research findings on smart infrastructure provisioning and sustainable land-use management should be used as strategic tools for developing informed conservation economy policy and decision-making in Africa. If Africa is to achieve biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management, road infrastructure development must be optimised to minimise environmental impacts while maximising socio-economic benefits, which can be realised by promoting lessons, trade-offs, and synergies learned from the cross-river superhighway case study.

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