The breeding biology of the red vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) was investigated in the Pakistani region of Okara. A total of 69 nests were found in the study region, with 51 active nests recording breeding activity. Parks were the most popular location for successful nest construction (46%) followed by orchids (28%), and agricultural fields (28%). (27 percent ). The data on the location of successful nests on the plant revealed that the forks had the highest number of successful nests (48%) while the middle, terminal, and other positions had 17 percent, 10%, and 25%, respectively. The preferred height for nest construction on plant was recorded 1-2m (58%) followed by 2-3 m (17%), 0-1 m (16%), 3-4 m (7%) and 4-5 m (1%). Red vented bulbul prefer to make nests on Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis; 32%) followed by Guava (Psidium guajava; 19%), Mango (Mangifera indica; 9%), White mulberry (Morus alba; 9%), Sweat orange (Citrus x sinensis; 9%), Bubul (Vachellia nilotica; 7%), Banyan (Ficus benghalensis; 4%), Weeping fig (Ficus benjamina; 3%) and Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera; 3%) in the study area. The clutch size 3 (87 percent) produced the most nests, followed by 2 (11 percent) and 4 (4%). (2 percent ). Bulbuls are omnivores, meaning they eat both plants and animals. Fruits and berries, insects and other arthropods (invertebrates, animals without backbones, with jointed bodies), as well as small vertebrates, animals with a backbone, such as frogs, snakes, and lizards, are all part of the diet. The green-tailed bristle-bill, for example, only feeds insects in a very restricted area, which is made up of a narrow horizontal layer of forest flora.
Bulbuls are arboreal creatures that live in trees. They can be found in a range of habitats, including woods, open woodlands, and even human-made gardens. The interior of the forest is home to certain African and Indonesian species. Some people prefer forest clearings or open regions just outside the forest. Species that have evolved to live in dry environments can thrive in farmed areas. Other bulbuls prefer to dwell near water, such as rivers or forest streams. The African red-eyed bulbul has evolved to a drier climate and can be found in savanna (grassland with few trees), semiarid scrub, and bushy hillsides, among other places. The common bulbul, also known as the African bulbul, may be found all over Africa, making it the most common of the bulbuls there. A total of 154 eggs were counted from 51 nests, with 10% of the eggs being infertile, 19% being predated, and 4% being lost to other causes. A total of 104 eggs were observed and hatched, with 28 percent of them being predated and 6 percent falling out of the nest. When compared to agricultural fields, the success rate of fledglings was highest in parks and orchids (39 percent) (22 percent ). The breeding biology of the red vented bulbul in Okara is distinctive, with northern white cedar as the favoured plant for nest construction and the highest breeding success in parks and orchids.