Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

Volume 9, Issue 2 (2021)

Open Access Pages: 1 - 1

A study of Avian biodiversity changes after habitat restoration Ô?? A novel approach using remote sensing and ebird observation data

Ashwin Sivakumar

During the last two centuries, the adjacent United States has lost over half of its wetland habitats. Remposition of wetland habitats is critical for enhancing the health and diversity of wildlife populations. Fernhill Wetlands in Forest Grove, Oregon is a natural wastewater treatment site that was changed from unutilized wastewater ponds to a composite natural wetland habitat in 2014-15. This study focused to assess the avian biodiversity change after habitat recyclable at Fernhill Wetlands by developing a novel and reusable method combining remote sensing satellite imagery and geospatial climate features and performing quantitative correlations to company science bird observation data. LANDSAT-8 and SENTINEL-2 satellite imagery and PRISM climate features were processed in the cloud using Google Earth Engine and vegetation, water and climate indices for pre- and post-repairing periods were calculated.

Identifying which ecological and life history traits effects a species’ tolerance to urbanization is difficult to understanding the trajectory of biodiversity in an escalating urbanizing world. There is evidence for a broad array of contrasting patterns for single trait associations with urbanization. In a continental├ó?┬Éscale examination, incorporating 477 species and > 5,000,000 bird monitoring, we developed a novel and scalable procedure that evaluated the ecological and life history traits which most influence a species’ adaptability to persist in urban environments. Specifically, we assigned species├ó?┬Éspecific scores based on continuous estimates of response to urbanization, using VIIRS night├ó?┬Étime light values (i.e., radiance) as a proxy for urbanization.

 We recognized generalized, phylogenetically controlled patterns: bird species which are generalists (i.e., large niche breadth), with large clutch size, and large remaining brain size are among the most urban├ó?┬Étolerant bird species. Conversely, specialized feeding strategies (i.e., insectivores and granivores) were negatively related with urbanization. Enhancement and persistence of avian biodiversity in urban environments probably relies on protecting, maintaining, and restoring various habitats serving a range of life history strategies.

Quantitative correlations were then confirmed in R among these indices and bird monitoring data from the Cornell University’s eBird database. Finally, oversee classification was used to obtain clarity on land, vegetation and water changes in the district of interest. Several terrestrial and deep-water species correspond well with vegetation and water indices. Shorebirds, marsh birds and others at the water’s edge showed subtler and occasionally unexpected reactions to habitat change. The technique also showed differences not seen in conventional analyses such as the reaction of dabbling ducks. A powerful methodology was developed to study the contact of habitat restoration on Avian populations combining remote sensing and bird observation data. It showed that the habitat restoration had a positive effect on several species, while also revealing compelling and unexpected effects on others. It is expected that the technique will be very helpful for ongoing habitat management by wetland managers.

Open Access Pages: 1 - 1

Pollen as a microscopic key for understanding biodiversity Ô?? Case study on the Genus Iris L. (Iridaceae)

Bozena Mitic

Presence of diversity of plants is an essential component of biodiversity, which make sure the survival of the whole Earth. The research of plant evolution, phylogeny and richness is a lasting need for the human race. One of the incredibly informative and often abandon disciplines in biodiversity research is palynology, the study of pollen grains and spores. It could supply us evidence on plant history, evolution and phylogeny. The prospective of palynology in researching the diversity of plants will be display by the case study on the large and complex genus Iris L., which made up of about 300 species, all around in the northern hemisphere. The current classifications, based specifically on morphology and molecular phylogeny, suggest a division of the genus Iris into six or more subgenera and countless sections and series. Irises grow on diverse natural habitats, especially in the southern and eastern segment of Europe, where on a small geographical range, a variation of climate and ecological conditions resulted in a great diversity of irises. The aim of this study was to look into pollen features of the genus Iris and to contribute to the preferable knowledge of their species richness. The results showed that few palynological features could have  evolutionary and taxonomical  significance, and at least four pollen types could be recognized and taxonomically delimited to the series amount. The taxonomic, phylogenetic and evolutionary implications have been estimated, and the possible pathway of evolution of the genus Iris was recommended (Fig. 1) from the subgenus Limniris to the subgenus Iris. Furthermore, some hotspots of irises and the require for the conservation of their diversity will be briefly recommended and discussed. To culminate, palynology as a tool for phylogenetic and evolutionary studies can give us a better insight in the evolution and diversity of plants and make sure a better knowledge for their conservation.

Biography Bozena Mitic has her expertise in various fields of Botany. At the beginning of her research career, she had a PhD degree in Plant Taxonomy and Systematics. She was involved in few nomenclature investigations, but she has also participated in research on Croatian flora. In the past 10 years, her research activities were expanded on invasive alien plants and palynology. Together with colleagues, she evolved national standards and the introductory list of invasive alien plants for Croatia. She indelibly works on the mapping and distribution of invasive alien plants in Croatia, and currently, she is on the reworking and updating of the list of alien plants in Croatia. She instigate modern palynological researches in Croatia and established a course on Palynology at the University of Zagreb, which piqued considerable interest between students. Since 2004, she has collaborated with the palynological group at the University of Vienna (Institute of Botany).

Open Access Pages: 1 - 1

Forest fires and soil loss: A threat to biodiversity

Jaime Senabre

Society doesn’t appear to be privy to the poor outcomes that wooded area fires have at the soil, whose degradation can end up irreversible in lots of cases. The soil is one of the essential factors for lifestyles on Earth and that isn’t given due attention. In the identical way, withinside the research on wooded area fires the movement of the herbal dangers in territories laid low with wooded area fires and the affect of those withinside the lack of soil are little taken into account. A figuring out component of plant productiveness is the great of the soil, a confined aid this is effortlessly destroyed, now no longer handiest through the occurrence of fires, however through the climatic and meteorological situations to which the place laid low with hearthplace may be subjected: Torrential rains, floods, droughts, severe temperatures, sturdy winds which could intensify the lack of vitamins and erosion. According to records acquired from a survey at the notion of threat through herbal phenomena completed with the Spanish population (n=1223), 67.54% of the respondents assume that they stay in a place threatened through a few herbal phenomenon and 73.02% imply that at a few second in his lifestyles, a few herbal catastrophe has befell that has broken the network wherein he lives.

In this line, some other look at performed with the aid of using our studies organization offers us with applicable facts at the frequency belief of woodland fires in Spain (n=1068), wherein 58.52% of the populace claim to go through the effect of woodland fires every year, 5.34% each 10 years or extra and 3.46% never. Given those findings on threat belief and primarily based totally on real prevalence facts, it's miles viable to prepare, now no longer handiest woodland hearthplace threat maps, however additionally threat maps of herbal risks to narrate them, a good way to set up the capability threat of lack of soil and the viable hazard to biodiversity, primarily based totally, mainly, at the discovered adjustments in hearthplace and herbal catastrophe regimes.

In this line, some other look at performed with the aid of using our studies organization offers us with applicable facts at the frequency belief of woodland fires in Spain (n=1068), wherein 58.52% of the populace claim to go through the effect of woodland fires every year, 5.34% each 10 years or extra and 3.46% never. Given those findings on threat belief and primarily based totally on real prevalence facts, it's miles viable to prepare, now no longer handiest woodland hearthplace threat maps, however additionally threat maps of herbal risks to narrate them, a good way to set up the capability threat of lack of soil and the viable hazard to biodiversity, primarily based totally, mainly, at the discovered adjustments in hearthplace and herbal catastrophe regimes.

Among numerous provinces in Indonesia, Riau Province ranks first in wooded area and land fires occurrences indicated via way of means of the very best hotspot range located withinside the province because the remaining decades (determine 1). It is observed via way of means of Central Kalimantan, West Kalimantan, South Sumatera, and Jambi Provinces. In the remaining 5 years period (2010-2015), wooded area and land fires in Indonesia appear to growth significantly, which reached the height in 2015. The large haze influences from wooded area and land fires clusters in Riau, South Sumatera and Jambi had implied to countrywide catastrophe popularity of the 3 provinces. Thousands of human beings had been suffering from air pollutants produced via way of means of the fire occurrences, in time period of fitness circumstance and day by day sports together with training and working.

Open Access Pages: 1 - 1

Alternatives to the cross river superhighway balances sustainable infrastructure development with biodiversity conservation

Mahmoud Ibrahim Mahmoud

Statement of the Problem: Roads infrastructure development is necessary but can be problematic when badly planned. Spatial scientists can provide evidenced-based reasoning in realizing viable and smart road substructure provisioning to optimize nature conservation, minimize environmental damages and increases socioeconomic benefits.

Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Based on integrated spatially explicit impacts assessment and cost-benefit examination, the African case study presented in this study show how re-routing poorly planned highways can lessen negative environmental impacts, conserve biodiversity provide innovative and flexible ecosystem management solutions. Examining the proposed 260 km superhighway in Cross River State, south-eastern Nigeria demonstrate how human actions threaten frontiers of biodiversity and wildlife conservation in equatorial Africa

Findings: The examined proposed highway by the Cross River State Government in Nigeria would have divided ~115 km of intact tropical rainforest or protected areas and would cost ~US$2.5 billion to construct. The two different routes 1 and 2 we offered and evaluated would be little damaging to the Cross River National Park, unguarded forests and biodiversity habitats. Although, the alternative routes are slightly longer (~290 and ~353 km), yet costing less (~ US$0.9 billion) to construct, compared to the state government proposed superhighway. The first alternative suggested, entirely avoids intact forest while focusing to provide maximum benefits to farmers and settlers.

Conclusion & Significance: In the context of achieving target #9 of the global sustainable development goals, smart substructure provisioning and sustainable land-use management suggestions from research outcomes should be incorporated as strategic tools for developing an informed conservation economy policy and decision-making in Africa. If biodiversity conservation and ecosystem management are to be achieved Africa wide, road infrastructure developments must be optimized to reduce environmental impacts and maximize socioeconomic benefits which can be perceived by promoting lessons, trade-offs and synergies learn from the cross river superhighway case study .Strategies that beautify the mitigation and variation of weather trade have emerge as a topic of worldwide concern. Selecting Cross River State, Nigeria as a case have a look at, I analyzed woodland associated weather trade mitigation and variation regulations the usage of the 2016 ITTO standards and signs for Sustainable Forest Management. I taken into consideration the ITTO framework a applicable device to attain the goal of this have a look at as it promotes the sustainable management, conservation, use and exchange of tropical woodland sources. The capacity of ITTO to provide a right illustration of Nigeria’s development with weather trade mitigation and variation the usage of woodland sources made it a appropriate device for this have a look at. I done a evaluate and historic evaluation of international, countrywide and sub-countrywide weather trade regulations, their roles, development and limitation. This have a look at famous the development which have been made thru harnessing woodland sources to mitigate and adapt to weather trade in Cross River State (CRS), Nigeria. Our findings monitor that a few development had been made with addressing weather trade the usage of international, countrywide and sub- countrywide woodland-associated weather trade regulations inside Nigeria. Internationally, Nigeria has produced 3 countrywide communications below UNFCCC indicating its commitments and development toward addressing international weather trade.



Open Access Pages: 1 - 1

Sustainable solutions to biodiversity conservation, local livelihoods and climate change: Our Korup rainforest story, southwest region, Cameroon

Orume Robinson

Poor communities are often critically dependent on ecosystem services to sustain their livelihoods occasionally posing threats to biodiversity. Though the arrangement on Biological Diversity (CBD) and other international agreements directly connect biodiversity conservation, poverty mitigation and human well-being, there are substantial debates concerning their relationships. There is therefore growing literature at the interface of rural livelihood improvement and biodiversity specially when compounded by impending effects of climate change. Considering the pitfalls of ICDPs, present-day conservation policies generally focus at a win-win solution that can address all these concerns. Korup is Cameroon’s first rainforest national park with well off biodiversity and endemism. Despite last conservation efforts, recent research reveals annual wildlife off takes of over 37000 animals, far above sustainable control for tropical rainforest. This amongst other human threats from local communities is driving vulnerable species to local extinction.Nevertheless, there is still need to recognize peculiarities in approaches, environmental characteristics, models and the communities in which success is most probably.

In developing countries, much remains to be done to truly combine the livelihoods of rural people and biodiversity conservation into land utilizing decision-making and management processes. Yet, research institutions can hold up informed landscape management decisions by communities, conservation agencies and policy-makers. This can be accomplished by developing techniques and instruments that facilitate coherent connection among stakeholders across various spatial and decisional scales. Researchers need to facilitate equitable participation in the planning procedure and provide information on the options that best amalgamate biodiversity conservation and livelihoods. This workshop is planned to use our Korup example to draw weaknesses, strength, opportunities and potential threats from our model that can guide our team and the conservation group.This chapter focus to analyse how research has contributed to this objective and how it could be formed for future integrative activities at the landscape level. It recognize lessons from case studies that combine biodiversity conservation and livelihood focuses in tropical regions and reviews methodological issues applicable to transdisciplinary research. In addition to the difficult elements emerging from case studies, the article highlights the crucial role of institutions in helping to bridge the gaps among science, planning, decision-making and effective management. Finally, it narrates an approach that two international research organizations are developing to promote the sustainable use of forests and trees and biodiversity conservation in disintegrate tropical forest landscapes.

As law enforcement escalating becomes less effective as a sole biodiversity shielding measure, we have rolled out an innovative co-management approach; sharing responsibilities and benefits among stakeholders. Our special features are Conservation-Development Agreements (CDAs), Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), Climate Smart Livelihood Measures (CLISLIM) and a performance based inducement system (Conservation bonuses and credits) aimed at relieving pressure on biodiversity, upgrading livelihoods and increasing resilience. Our approach is consistent with IUCN and internationally agreed proposition of respect for traditional owners’ rights and institutions, resolving extended standing exclusion, restored rights and cultural identity as well as empowered communities to keep up and participate in conservation efforts.

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