Journal of Biodiversity & Endangered Species

ISSN: 2332-2543

Open Access

Volume 8, Issue 1 (2020)

Research Article Pages: 1 - 3

Biology of Elm Leaf Beetles Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Kurdistan Region-Iraq

Rebwar A. Mustafa

DOI: 10.37421/J Biodivers Endanger Species/2020/8/238

Recently, Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) has been recorded as new species in the Kurdistan region-Iraq, which is one of the most important pests on Elm and feeds on the leaves in either larval or adult stages. The biological study of the Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) regarding lifecycle and behavior, was conducted in Halabja city, Kurdistan Region-Iraq. Elm Leaf Beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola adults were collected from the Elm host trees Ulmus glabra (Ulmaceae) in Halabja city in 2015 and 2016. The life cycle of Elm leaf Beetle was studied under laboratory condition (25℃ and 60 RH), the means of the incubation period, developmental time of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd larval instars were 2.11 ± 0.02, 4.21 ± 0.09, and 6.01 ± 0.0 1 days, respectively. The mean of a pupal period in the soil and under flurried leaves was 11.00 ± 0.03 days. Means of pre-oviposition, oviposition and post-oviposition periods were 10.42 ± 1.2, 7.78 ± 0.4 and 2.4 ± 0.2 days, respectively. The female and male longevity in rearing was 20.6 ± 0.3 and 21.04 ± 1.2 days, respectively. The mean number of eggs per adult was 78.79 ± 5.3. Overall, the total larval stage period was 18-30 days depending on temperature and humidity. Total larval stage period 18-30 days depending on temperature and humidity, the total period life cycle was 35-50 days. In this study, three generations were recorded per year either in the field and laboratory. Moreover, adults of Elm Leaf Beetle hibernate in the under fallen leaves or soil cracks or tree bark, same places where larvae molting.

Case Report Pages: 1 - 9

Impact of Darfur’s War on Socioeconomic Activities of the People in Thur, Jabel Marra Darfur; Sudan

Alaa Yousif

DOI: 10.37421/J Biodivers Endanger Species/2020/8/242

This study was conducted in Thur village Jabel Marra, Darfur which is one of the richest places in Sudan in terms of biodiversity and vertical land for agriculture since agriculture is constitutes the backbone and principal source of Jabel Marra’s economies. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of war on the socio-economic activities of rural communities in the study area. The study adopted the descriptive analytical approach for the collection and analysis of data, using questionnaires, meetings, and inventory as a basic tool for data collection and analysis by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences program (SPSS).The study concluded that, decreased cultivated lands led to decrease in the production system; which means that, the war affected human activities. Also about   94% of the studied communities are engaged in agricultural activities, where 84% confirm that, the available areas have dramatically decreased due to conflicts causing, further distresses to other agricultural activities. Added to that, about 68% of respondents were depends on the forests products as source of income, while 32% of them mention that they do not depend on the forest. The bulk of respondents mentioned that, the area exploited for agriculture were decreased due to the war period, which led to reductions in individual income as a result of high level of insecurity

Original Research Article Pages: 1 - 13

Human pressure threaten Swayne's Hartebeest to point of local extinction from the Savannah Plains of Nech Sar National Park, South Rift Valley, Ethiopia

Simon Shibru

DOI: 2332-2543/J Biodivers Endanger Species.2020.8.239

We investigated the population size of the endemic and endangered Swayne’s Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Nech Sar National Park from 2012 to 2014 and document the major threats why the species is on the verge of local extinction. The park was once known for its abundant density of Swayne’s Hartebeest. We used direct total count methods for census. We administered semi structured interviews and open ended questionnaires with senior scouts who are member of the local communities. Historical records were obtained to evaluate the population trends of the animals since 1974. The density of the animal decreased from 65 in 1974 to 1 individual per 100 km2 in 2014 with a decline of 98.5% in the past 40 years. The respondents agreed that the conservation status of the park was in its worst condition ever now with only 2 Swayne’s Hartebeest left, with a rapid decline from 4 individuals in 2012 and 12 individuals in 2009. Mainly hunting and habitat loss, but also unsuitable season of reproduction and shortage of forage as minor factors were identified as threats for local extinction of the Swayne’s Hartebeests. On the other hand, predation, fire, disease and ticks were not considered a cause for the declining trend. Hunting happens mostly out of some kind of revenge since the local community thought that they were pushed out from the land because of the presence of Swayne's Hartebeest in the area. Respondents agreed that the revenge action of the local communities was in response to their unwillingness to be displaced from the park in 1982/3. This conflict situation is resulting from the exclusionary wildlife management policy of the country. We conclude that the human interventions in general and illegal hunting in particular pushed the Swayne’s Hartebeest to a point of local extinction. Therefore, we recommend inclusive wildlife management approach for continuing existence of the park together with its natural resources so that sustainable use of the resources is in place.  

Research Article Pages: 1 - 8

Assessment of Socio-Economic Role of Yushania alpina in Dawuro Zone, Essera District, SNNPR, Ethiopia

Bekele Tona Amenu

DOI: 10.37421

Bamboo (Yushania alpine) known as highland bamboo is a perennial, multipurpose and fast-growing plant that supports local livelihoods in many ways. However, for long its uses have been limited to traditional applications. Although bamboo has quit high distribution and widely utilized by a large number of local communities in Ethiopia, little baseline information on its livelihood support and domestication status exist for several areas. The objectives of this study were to assess the socio-economic roles of Yushania alpine in the Essera district, Zadi Shamity kebele of Dawuro Zone, SNNP Region. The study used a combination of methods to achieve the set objectives. The socio-economic survey involved formal and informal interviews and observations. On the farm, the bamboo stock was assessed using farm-level inventory. For socio-economic data collection, a formal (questionnaire) survey was administered on 60 respondents. The respondents were selected from one peasant kebele; this kebele was purposefully selected among the 29 kebeles within the district. This selection was based principally on accessibility and abundance of bamboo resources, use and marketing history. The results showed that the aggregated contribution of bamboo to the gross household income is found to be only 11% of the total, which is very less than the income from agriculture (30%). The income generated from bamboo ranks second in importance as sources of household income. Bamboo is used for a variety of traditional applications include construction, fencing, fodder, household furniture, fuel-wood and as a cash source. Almost 96% of households have been started bamboo cultivation on their land and wasteland. Among these, almost above the average respondents (71%) of the respondents) had inherited their bamboo stands from parents. The major push factors for cultivation/domestication in their order of importance are increasing bamboo use for different household purposes, income generation and depletion of bamboo in the natural stand. In conclusion, promotion, training and market facilitation for better economic incentives from bamboo may win increased local people participation bamboo cultivation, which may ultimately lead to better conservation and utilization of bamboo.

Review Article Pages: 1 - 15

Behavioral Ecology of Forest Birds

Endihnew Tessfa Gedam

DOI: 10.37421/J Biodivers Endanger Species/2020/8/241

Birds are among the most extensively studied organisms; their aspects of behavior as migration, feeding, sexual and social display, and nesting are well documented Naish. Birds are relatively easy to identify compared to other taxa because of their conspicuous nature and therefore particularly interesting to study in community ecology Bird behavior refers to the action of a bird in response to environmental situations. Testosterone (T) regulates avian behaviors such as songs and aggression during the breeding season. However, the role of T in year-round territorial birds is still unknowable, especially in tropical birds


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