Global Journal of Technology and Optimization

ISSN: 2229-8711

Open Access

Volume 11, Issue 2 (2020)

Research Article Pages: 1 - 6

Influence of Principal Component Analysis as a Data Conditioning Approach for Training Multilayer Feedforward Neural Networks with Exact Form of Levenberg-Marquardt Algorithm

Najam Ul Qadir*, Md. Rafiul Hassan and Khalid Akhtar

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) have generally been observed to learn with a relatively higher rate of convergence resulting in an improved training performance if the input variables are preprocessed before being used to train the network. The  foremost objectives  of  data  preprocessing  include  size  reduction  of  the  input  space,  smoother  relationship,  data  normalization,  noise  reduction,  and  feature  extraction. The most commonly used technique for input space reduction is Principal Component Analysis (PCA) while two of the most commonly used data normalization approaches include the min-max normalization or rescaling, and the z-score normalization also known as standardization. However, the selection of the most appropriate preprocessing method for a given dataset is not a trivial task especially if the dataset contains an unusually large number of training patterns. This study presents a first attempt of combining PCA with each of the two aforementioned normalization approaches for analyzing the network performance based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) training algorithm utilizing exact formulations of both the gradient vector and the Hessian matrix. The network weights have been initialized using a linear least squares method. The training procedure has been conducted for each of the proposed modifications of the LM algorithm for four different types of datasets and the training performance in terms of the average convergence rate and a proposed performance metric has been compared with the Neural Network Toolbox in MATLAB® (R2017a).

Research Article Pages: 1 - 5

Sonoluminescence from Ultra-High-Temperature and High-Pressure Cavitation and its Effect on Surface Modification of Cr-Mo Steel

Toshihiko Yoshimura*, Daisaku Maeda, Takayuki Ogi, Fumihiro Kato and Masataka Ijiri

Sonoluminescence from various types of cavitation bubbles, namely those of water jet cavitation (WJC), water jet cavitation with a swirl flow nozzle (SFN-WJC), multifunction cavitation (MFC), ultrasonic cavitation (UC), and ultrahigh-temperature and highpressure cavitation (UTPC), wasinvestigated. The sonoluminescence measurements were compared with the surface modification characteristics imparted to Cr-Mo steel. The luminescence intensity of the various types of cavitation was measured using two types of photon counting head, whose detection sensitivity depends on the wavelength range. 2 UTPC had the highest light intensity, followed by MFC, UC, SFN-WJC, and WJC. The temperature inside the bubbles from the various types of cavitation could be estimated using the black-body emission method based on Planck’s law and the emission intensity, which was corrected for the sensitivity of the detector. UTPC, which had high luminosity and could treat surfaces at high temperatures, was found to increase compressive residual stress and decrease surface roughness compared to WJC and SFN-WJC, which had low luminosity and are forms of cold working. At higher cavitation temperature, more corrosion-resistant and oxidation-resistant films form on a steel surface. The magnitude of luminescence intensity for a cavitation process corresponds to the magnitude of corrosion potential (surface potential), which indicates corrosion resistance

Short Communication Pages: 1 - 3

Balanced Scorecard Improvement

Jackson Watson*

Balanced Scorecard (BSC) is one of the most popular performance measurement tools of the past two decades. However, many current and potential adopters of theBSC are not convinced that the technique is able to present a comprehensive picture of organisations’ performance. This commentary paper is aiming to address someof the shortcomings of the BSC in practice and provide some suggestions for its improvement. The BSC links non-financial measures with financial measures in fourareas of performance concerned with financials, internal process, customers and innovation and learning
Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

Strategies in Business Optimization

Loren James*

There are a few assignments that nature figures out how to perform without any problem be that as it may, which calculations structured by individuals can't finish. We can discover these undertakings in muddled and variable situations. Mathematicians have directed their concentration toward nature, and on the premise of relationship they made the fluffy rationale, neural systems, and developmental calculations hypotheses. There are different regions of utilization, such as advancement in the executives, hazard the executives, dynamic, the financial exchange, innovation control, reenactment, expectation, bunch examinations, and different parts of utilizations in business. The utilization of the speculations referenced above is in the circle of advancement. We can for the most part notice, for instance, an improvement of mechanical dynamic procedures with the point of streamlining (least misfortunes and costs, most extreme benefit), a streamlining of capital dynamic, a streamlining of portfolios, an enhancement of costs of items and volume of creation, an answer of the issues of movement of sales reps/salesmen, and so forth. The business frameworks have a place with the most confused unique frameworks. The applications in business have explicit highlights in examination with applications in building. The procedures are centered around upgrading pay or benefit, or on enhancing diminishing costs. Along these lines, such applications, both effective and ineffective, are not distributed all the time on account of mystery in the profoundly serious conditions among firms and organizations. The procedures are engaged on private corporate endeavors at cash making. The delicate processing techniques help in business to focus on the correct clients and subsequently it can prompt higher benefits and to accomplishment in the serious battle. There are different delicate processing strategies utilized in business: old style ones and strategies utilizing delicate figuring. The dynamic forms in business are exceptionally muddled, where numerous factors are hard to gauge; they are described by imprecision, vulnerability, unclearness, semitruth, estimation, non-linearity and so forth. Under these conditions, the strategies for delicate figuring, for example, fluffy rationale, neural systems, developmental calculations are fitting. As a rule, one might say that the field of uses of delicate figuring techniques in business covers a wide region of utilizations.

Letter Pages: 1 - 3

Advances in Centrifugal Compressors

Natasha Jones*

In the case where flow passes through a straight pipe to enter a centrifugal compressor the flow is straight, uniform and has no vorticity, ie swirling motion, so the swirl angle α1 = 0° as illustrated. As the flow passes through the centrifugal impeller, the impeller forces the flow to spin faster as it gets further from the rotational axis. According to a form of Euler's fluid dynamics equation, known as the pump and turbine equation, the energy input to the fluid is proportional to the flow's local spinning velocity multiplied by the local impeller tangential velocity. In many cases, the flow leaving the centrifugal impeller is travelling near the speed of sound. It then flows through a stationary compressor causing it to decelerate. The stationary compressor is ducting with increasing flow-area where energy transformation takes place. If the flow has to be turned in a rearward direction to enter the next part of the machine, e.g. another impeller or a combustor, flow losses can be reduced by directing the flow with stationary turning vanes or individual turning pipes (pipe diffusers). As described in Bernoulli's principle, the reduction in velocity causes the pressure to rise.

Mini Review Pages: 1 - 2

Computing Technology for Industrial Production Planning

Tony Walker*

This manuscript based on the results of a survey, reviews the typical computer applications encountered in the manufacturing industry. The use of computers and available operations research techniques, for production planning and control, amongst companies participating in this survey is discussed. Difficulties, encountered by existing users, in implementing their computer systems are outlined. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the impact of computer use on a number of significant measures of performance.

Letter Pages: 1 - 2

Cell of Human Body

Jackson Jones*

This manuscript based on the results of a survey, reviews the typical of cell application which can be used for there development of the human and technology in this manuscript we are focusing on the computer and technology and show our well defined to technology in the manuscript. Difficulties, encountered by existing users, in implementing their computer systems are outlined. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the impact of computer use on a number of significant measures of performance.


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