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Clinical and Medical Case Reports

Open Access

Volume 5, Issue 1 (2021)

Research Article Pages: 1 - 2

Pterygopalatine Fossa, a Way to Spread Mucormycosis with Multiple Cranial Nerve Involvement

Masoumeh Eslami*

Background: Mucormycosis is a rare, aggressive, and fatal infection caused by fungi of the Mucorales order of Zygomycete fungi. Mucormycosis is mainly found in patients with chronic conditions, and clinical cases are observed only in immunocompromised patients and patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Rhinocerebral type is the most prevalent type of mucormycosis which has a characteristic method of spread. Although the involvement of cranial nerves is not common, it can be multiple with facial nerve involvement.

Case presentation: We described an unusual route of fungus spread in a 50 years old woman with the involvement of many cranial nerves, without obvious necrosis or significant involvement of paranasal sinuses. Pterygopalatine fossa was a way to spread mucormycosis

Conclusion: In every diabetic patient with cranial nerve palsy and sinusitis, invasive mucormycosis must be considered.

Editorial Pages: 1 - 2

Lifestyle improvement with the philosophy of Hinohara-ism in the current challenging circumstances of COVID-19 worldwide

Hiroshi Bando*

DOI: 10.37421/cmcr.2021.5.e102

Measures against COVID-19?are roughly divided into two, which are for infection and lifestyle. The latter including three groups are described. The first is a basic life style with meal/exercise habits, sound sleep, natural healing power, mind/body. The second is a concrete lifestyle with manage stress, smoking, alcohol, health check-up. The third is a habit easy to forget with art/culture, social being, never forget death. Furthermore, Dr. Shigeaki Hinohara was a supreme physician who established New Elderly Association (NEA) proposing Hinohara-ism. This philosophy is powerful to give people behavior changes, and hopefully to save the world in the future.

Commentry Pages: 1 - 1

Neurological Complications of Covid-19

Hiroshi Bando

DOI: 10.37421/cmcr.2021.5.103

History: Coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) may be a doubtless serious condition caused by a completely unique coronavirus termed as “severe acute metabolism syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)”. COVID-19 is clinically characterised by systema respiratorium involvement. COVID-19 illness was 1st seen in urban center, China, in December 2019, once a series of patients given with respiratory illness of unknown etiology. COVID-19 has terribly chop-chop unfold worldwide and on March eleven, 2020, the globe Health Organization formally declared COVID-19 an epidemic. The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by severe acute metabolism syndrome coronavirus two (SARS-CoV-2), is of a scale not seen since the 1918 contagion pandemic. though the predominant clinical presentation is with respiratory disorder, medical specialty manifestations ar being recognised more and more. On the idea of information of alternative coronaviruses, particularly people who caused the severe acute metabolism syndrome and Near East metabolism syndrome epidemics, cases of systema nervosum centrale and peripheral systema nervosum illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 can be expected to be rare. The SARS-CoV-2, a completely unique virus has shown Associate in Nursing association with central systema nervosum (CNS) symptoms. Initial retrospective studies rising from China and France, yet as case reports from totally different elements of the globe unconcealed a spectrum of medical specialty symptoms starting from a straightforward headache to a lot of serious inflammation and dysexecutive syndromes. Concerns concerning potential medical specialty complications of COVID-19 ar being more and more reported , primarily in tiny series. Larger studies are restricted by each geographics and specialty. Comprehensive characterisation of clinical syndromes is crucial to permit rational choice and analysis of potential therapies. 

Short Communication Pages: 1 - 1

Role of advances resonance imaging sequences in degenerative disorder

Hiroshi Bando

DOI: 10.37421/cmcr.2021.5.104

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is taken into account AN inflammatory reaction neurological unwellness that's characterised by pathologic changes, as well as degenerative disorder and nerve fiber injury. the primary man pictures of MS were created within the early Eighties, once man was introduced into hospitals. The high conspicuity abnormal signal intensities of MS lesions seen on man imaging provided the simplest read nevertheless of tissue injury, lesion activity, and unwellness accumulation compared with all alternative imaging modalities, as well as CT. Since then, man imaging has become a routine clinical examination in MS and is employed to assist the designation and track the natural course of the unwellness. With the appearance of newer quantitative man techniques—including volumetrical man imaging, magnetization transfer imaging (MTI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and nucleon man (1H-MR) spectroscopy—our ability to observe and characterize the unwellness burden, as well as occult microscopic unwellness invisible once exploitation standard man techniques, has for the most part improved. Today, man imaging is that the most significant paraclinical tool for MS, and man imaging–derived measures are established as normal outcome markers to observe the treatment response in numerous MS clinical trials. Magnetic resonance imaging has been crucial within the development of medication disease-modifying treatments. this landscape of degenerative disorder clinical trials is presently increasing to incorporate testing not solely of medication agents, however conjointly neuroprotective, remyelinating, neuromodulating, and restorative therapies. this is often very true of therapies targeting progressive types of the unwellness wherever neurodegeneration may be a distinguished feature. Imaging techniques of the brain and medulla spinalis have speedily evolved within the last decade to allow in vivo characterization of tissue microstructural changes, property, metabolic changes, neuronic loss, interstitial tissue activity, and degenerative disorder. Advanced resonance imaging techniques hold vital promise for fast the event of various treatment modalities targeting a spread of pathways in MS. Conventional man Imaging Conventional man scanning offers the foremost sensitive thanks to observe MS lesions and their changes and plays a dominant role in ruling in or ruling out a designation of MS. though MS lesion plaques may be found throughout the brain, they need a predilection for periventricular nervous tissue and have a tendency to own AN ovoid configuration with the foremost axes perpendicular to the bodily cavity surface. Advances in observance MS progression Conventional brain imaging is progressively wont to support clinicians in observance the progression of MS.6 In early MS, the imaging image is characterised by the event of recent WM lesions, as markers of inflammation and active degenerative disorder. a better variety of WM lesions at unwellness onset and also the increase in lesion volume over the primary the primary CIS will increase the chance of clinically definite MS and worse incapacity in studies on massive multicenter cohorts with long follow up. In distinction, in progressive MS, new active lesions area unit rare, however pre-existing T2 lesions might show slowly increasing lesions (SELs), reflective tissue loss within the absence of current acute inflammation, unconcealed by the presence of a rim of iron-containing cells at the lesion border, thought to represent activated microglia/macrophages. This iron rim at the sting of MS lesions is preponderantly seen in SELs, less ofttimes in inactive lesions, not seen in active and hardly in remyelinated lesions. Recently, Elliot and colleagues developed a way for the automated detection of SELs on standard brain tomography and advised SELs as a possible imaging biomarker for chronic inflammation in MS.

Perspective Article Pages: 1 - 1

Multimodality imaging evaluation of sacroiliitis in newly diagnosed patients of spondyloarthropathy

Hiroshi Bando

DOI: 10.37421/cmcr.2021.5.105

Multimodality imaging analysis of sacroiliitis in new diagnosed patients of spondyloarthropathy Spondyloarthropathies area unit types of inflammatory disease that typically strike the bones in your spine and close joints. they'll cause pain and generally harm joints like your backbone, shoulders, and hips. The most common type is named “ankylosing rubor.” It attacks joints between the bones that conjure your spine (vertebrae). however there area unit alternative forms as well: Undifferentiated spondyloarthropathy Reactive inflammatory disease Reiter’s syndrome Psoriatic arthritis Enteropathic spondyloarthropathy. History In the last decade, new clinical and imaging outcomes have improved the identification and follow-up of spondyloarthritis and therefore the assessment of therapeutic modalities .Until recently, the definitive identification of spondyloarthritis relied on typical radiography. However, picture taking changes sometimes develop a minimum of five years once symptom onset Diagnostics Diagnostic criteria for spondyloarthritis planned by the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society (ASAS) for patients younger than forty five years with low back pain for quite three months area unit as follows: magnetic resonance imaging or typical radiography shows sacroiliitis and a minimum of one in every of the subsequent clinical findings or the HLA-B27 result's positive and a minimum of 2 of the clinical findings area unit gift. The clinical findings area unit as follows: inflammatory back pain, arthritis, enthesitis (Achilles), uveitis, dactylitis, psoriasis, physician inflammation, case history of spondyloarthropathy, positive HLA-B27 result, smart response to nonsteroidal antiinflammatory medication, and positive serum globulin result. the standards embody magnetic resonance imaging of the sacroiliac joint as a result of magnetic resonance imaging has verified to be most fitted for detective work inflammation, enabling early identification in patients with traditional picture taking findings and making certain applicable and effective therapeutic management . Pathophysiology and Clinical Findings Spondyloarthritis affects each men and girls however is most often seen in men. The sickness sometimes starts between the second and therefore the fourth decades of life and is never found once the age of forty years . a standard feature of spondyloarthropathies may be a high frequency of the presence of HLA-B27, and more or less 15 August 1945 of HLA-B27 positive people eventually have autoimmune disease because of unknown factors. This cluster of diseases is characterised by the inflammatory involvement of the entheses, that area unit junctional areas between bone and tendons, fascia, ligaments, or capsules. Enthesopathy may be a outstanding clinical feature in patients with spondyloarthritis, sometimes moving the skeletal structure and peripheral and sacroiliac joints. MRI Findings MRI is taken into account the foremost sensitive imaging methodology for detective work inflammatory changes of the spine and sacroiliac joints. this method has been progressively employed in apply to assess sickness activity and generally to observe and measure therapeutic response The ASAS has listed the subsequent imaging findings connotative active inflammation and chronic lesions of the spine and sacroiliac joints.

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