Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Safety Evaluation of Permethrin and Indoxacarb in Dogs Topically Exposed to Activyl® Tick Plus


Hailey Litchfield, Ramesh C Gupta, Robin B Doss, Stephanie D Bland and Terry D Canerdy

The use of ectoparasiticides on pets is incredibly important since pets are commonly infested with fleas, ticks, and other external parasites. Unfortunately, there is very little data on the safety of these products for dogs, their owners, and veterinary personnel who come into contact with the animals on a daily basis. Therefore, this investigation was undertaken to determine the residue of permethrin and indoxacarb in the dog’s blood and to determine the transferable residues of these insecticides to gloves worn while petting six adult dogs after the topical application of Activyl® Tick Plus. Samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35. At these time intervals, the dogs also underwent physical examination. The blood samples (approximately 4-5 ml) were collected into EDTA tubes. The glove samples were obtained by using 100% cotton gloves and petting each dog for 5 minutes, using a new glove each time. Blood and glove samples were extracted in methylene chloride:petroleum ether (1:1), and the extracts were assayed for residues of permethrin and indoxacarb using GC/MS. Blood analysis did not reveal the presence of permethrin or indoxacarb at any time during the investigation. In the gloves, the highest concentrations of permethrin and indoxacarb were determined at 24 hr (819.80 ± 253.22; 90.80 ± 35.16 μg/g, respectively). Residues of both compounds were found in significant concentrations in the gloves until day 7 (174.85 ± 46.98; 7.63 ± 2.83 μg/g, respectively). Permethrin residue was found in the gloves in detectable amounts until day 35 (28.12 ± 11.59 μg/g). Indoxacarb residue was found in the gloves in insignificant amounts until day 21 (0.65 ± 0.45 μg/g). In conclusion, Activyl® Tick Plus appears to be safe for dogs, as no adverse reactions occurred and residue was never found in the blood. Owners and veterinary personnel can be exposed to significant levels of permethrin and indoxacarb following daily exposure if proper precautions are not taken.


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