Veterinary Science & Technology

ISSN: 2157-7579

Open Access

Review on Pulpy Kidney Disease


Dinsefa Jemal*, Mohazeba Shifa and Bedaso Kebede

Pulpy kidney disease is a poisoning produce by a toxin from gram positive spore forming an obligate anaerobic rod bacterium called Clostridium perfringens type D. The disease is perhaps the best known pathogenic Clostridium perfringens type, widely regarded as the causative organism of fatal enterotoxaemia of sheep or “over eating disease”. It appears to have a worldwide distribution and produce epsilon toxin that damages endothelial cells, which is almost exclusively responsible for the host pathology and subsequent death. The toxin is produced in the gut by abundantly growing bacterial cells and is triggered by some feeding factors and grazing management when animals are switched from a poor to a rich pasture or when a days with temperate to warm weather. This causes annual grasses to growth rapidly, with low fibre and high ammonia contents. This toxin absorbed to the systemic circulation. The disease is clinically manifested by acute, sub-acute and chronic neurologic condition, characterized by sudden death or neurologic and respiratory signs including blindness, convulsions, bleating, frothing by the mouth and recumbence before death. It is diagnosed by the detection of specific anti-bodies and necropsy finding. Treatment, prevention and control for the disease depends on anti-toxin, supportive treatment and correction of dietary excessively and vaccination. Therefore animals should be protected from over feeding. In addition an epidemiological surveillance on the disease should be done in animals and dietary management, so that appropriate prevention and control strategies can be implemented.


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