Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis

ISSN: 2161-0703

Open Access

Review on Major Disease Threats in Case of Emergencies


Hylemariam Mihiretie, and Asaye Birhanu

Emergencies, caused by growth of world’s population, affects weather conditions and cause outbreaks of several communicable diseases that result in high morbidity and mortality specially in developing countries. The cumulative effects of these disasters include displacement, increasing vector breeding sites, unplanned and overcrowded shelters, poor water and sanitation conditions, poor nutritional status and poor personal hygiene, low levels of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases or insufficient vaccination coverage, and limited access to healthcare services.

Flooding is one of the commonest natural disasters which results in contamination of drinking-water facilities, facilitation of the transmission of water-borne diseases (typhoid fever, cholera, leptospirosis and hepatitis A) and vector-borne diseases (malaria, dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, yellow fever, and West Nile Fever).

Malaria is among the most important diseases that are aggravated by movement and migration. The transmission of malaria is strongly influenced by population movements and by the process of urbanization. Pneumonia is one of the diseases which is more prevalent in overcrowded and unprotected communities. Similarly, diarrhoea is aggravated by unhygienic lifestyles which is common in case of emergencies. Since the occurrence of emergencies and natural disasters is uncertain, every country should develop a way of preventing infectious disease that may occur in consequence of natural disasters, war and terrorism.


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