Journal of Spine

ISSN: 2165-7939

Open Access

Review and Classification of Occult Spinal Dysraphism and Tethered Cord Syndrome in Children


Derek C. Samples and Izabela Tarasiewicz

Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) or occult spinal dysraphism sequence is a collection of neurological conditions that potentially result from the abnormal fixation of the spinal cord secondary to a developmentally acquired or postoperative pathology. We present a schema for TCS consisting of etiology, embryology, pathophysiology, presentation, and classification in order to facilitate the comprehension and discussion of this complex topic. Our review focuses on closed rather than open spinal dysraphisms because those cases are generally more inconspicuous in presentation and, for that reason, likely to create diagnostic delays that can adversely affect patients.


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