Journal of Hypertension: Open Access

ISSN: 2167-1095

Open Access

Prevalence and Correlates of Hypertension among Adults Aged 25 Years or Older in a Mining Town of Kitwe, Zambia


Seter Siziya, Emmanuel Rudatsikira, Olusegun Babaniyi, Peter Songolo, David Mulenga1 and Adamson S Muula

Background: Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The trend towards a higher burden of non-communicable chronic diseases in developing countries is of great concern as it adds to the burden of communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hypertension among adults in the City of Kitwe, Zambia.
Methods: A modified WHO STEPs (STEPwise Approach to Surveillance) method was used to collect data through a community-based survey among persons aged 25 years or older living in urban Kitwe, Zambia. Prevalence of hypertension was estimated and compared between males and females. Odds ratio (OR) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals were used to establish associations between exposure factors and hypertension.
Results: Altogether, 1627 persons participated in the survey of which 57.7% were females. Overall, 32.3% (33.5% of males and 31.1% of females, p=0.350) were hypertensive. Age and body mass index were significantly associated with hypertension. Compared to participants who were of age 45 years or older, participants who were below the age of 45 years were less likely to have hypertension (AOR=0.53, 95% CI [0.45, 0.62]) for 25-34 years age group, and AOR=0.61, 95% CI [0.50, 0.74]) for 35-44 years age group). Participants who had BMI of less than 18.5 kg/m2 were 50% (AOR=0.50, 95% CI [0.32, 0.77]) less likely to have hypertension compared to participants who had BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Meanwhile, participants who had BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2 were 33% (AOR=1.33, 95% CI [1.05, 1.69] more likely to have hypertension compared to participants who had BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more.
Conclusions: Our findings indicate that hypertension is prevalent among urban residents in Kitwe, Zambia.
Effective prevention strategies including interventions to ensure lower BMIs, should be implemented, taking into considerations the risk factors identified in this study.


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