Journal of Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis

ISSN: 2155-9929

Open Access

Plasma apoE is Elevated in Metabolic Syndrome: Importance of Large Very Low Density and Low Density Lipoprotein Particles


Eke G Gruppen, Geesje M Dallinga-Thie, Stephan JL Bakker and Robin PF Dullaart

Background: Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is carried by all major lipoprotein classes in plasma and is likely to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. We set out to determine the extent to which plasma apoE is related to various VLDL, LDL and HDL subfractions in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods: Plasma lipids, lipoprotein subfractions (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and plasma apoE were determined in 60 subjects with and 62 subjects without MetS (APOE ε2/ε2 carriers excluded).

Results: Plasma apoE was higher in MetS, coinciding with increased total and large VLDL particles, as well as total LDL particles (p<0.01 for each after age, sex and diabetes status adjustment). Age- and sex-adjusted multivariable linear regression analysis revealed that plasma apoE was related positively to the VLDL particle concentration (p=0.003), in particular large VLDL (p<0.001) and to the LDL particle concentration (p=0.013), independent of MetS and diabetes status (p>0.30). Plasma apoE was unrelated to HDL particle concentration (p=0.88).

Conclusions: Plasma apoE is elevated in MetS in conjunction with increased concentrations of (large) VLDL and LDL particles. These novel findings provide a rationale to explore whether preferential association of apoE with (large) VLDL and LDL could modify its influence on atherosclerosis development.


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